Carbon Finance and Pro-Poor Co-Benefits: The Gold Standard and Climate, Community and Biodiversity Standards
This paper assesses the practical contribution of the Gold Standard (GS) and Climate Community and Biodiversity (CCB) Standards to local development through the identification of high quality carbon offset projects and ensuring high standards of consultation with local communities during project development and implementation. It is based on desk research, involving analysis of the GS and CCB Standards' project databases, project design documents, and secondary literature. In addition, over 20 representatives of the two standards systems, project developers, NGO representatives, and researchers were interviewed. The paper concludes that both standard systems successfully reward high quality projects which have a demonstrated commitment to local consultations and sustainable development benefits. Moreover, they serve to give well-meaning project developers frameworks with which to ensure that a wide range of criteria are considered in planning and implementing projects. As voluntary standards, it is unrealistic to expect either the GS or CCB Standards to improve poor-quality or unsustainable projects. The paper also shows an inverse relationship between mitigation and significant co-benefits, imposing a limit on the extent to which both can be achieved simultaneously, This is unsurprising given that carbon markets are primarily tools for greenhouse gas mitigation rather than for development or extending energy access.
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additionality Africa attract Bagepalli baselines Biodiversity Standards biogas biogas project biomass biomass plants biomass projects Burgi carbon finance carbon markets carbon offset carbon projects CCB Standards projects CDM projects Clean Development Mechanism Climate Community co-benefits Community and Biodiversity compliance market consultation process conventional CDM Dios project emissions reductions Energy efficiency ensure environmental example Expected annual VERs extent factors forestry projects framework Gold Standard GS and CCB GS CDM GS CERs GS projects GS Registry GS VER projects high quality projects Ibid implementation India interviewed investors Jansson-Smith Joanna Durbin Kasigau Madre de Dios Malavalli methodologies mitigation monitoring Moreover Neef negative impacts NGOs offset buyers offset projects palm oil particularly personal communication 2010 pipeline potential premiums pro-poor projects project developers projects by project REDD renewable energy requirements significant stakeholder consultations Sterk substantial co-benefits sustainable development sustainable development contributions type of project VERs and CERs voluntary market wind farm projects wind project