Cardiovascular Soft Tissue Mechanics
Stephen C. Cowin, Jay D. Humphrey
Springer Science & Business Media, 2001 - Mathematics - 246 pages
The seven papers of this volume present a glimpse into current research on soft tissue mechanics as well as some future directions. The seven papers concern tissues within the cardiovascular system: three focus on arteries, three on the heart, and one on biaxial testing of planar tissues such as heart valves. Given that cardiovascular disease continues to be the leading cause of death in the developed world, the importance of such research is clear. There are notable common features of the seven papers. First, most of the proposed constitutive relations are motivated directly by data on the underlying microstructure, and especially the orientations of a structurally important protein (collagen) that forms as undulated cross-linked fibers. Another feature of most of the papers is the consideration of the fact that both arteries and the heart contain muscle and that there is a need to quantify the so-called active (contractile) response in addition to the passive (non-contractile) response. Such relations must not only be structurally motivated, they must ultimately include the kinetics of calcium transport in the muscle. Constitutive relations for active behavior are discussed in the majority of the papers. The growth and remodeling of cardiovascular tissues is another common feature of the papers. Over the last twenty years, separate advances in biochemistry, cell biology, genetic engineering, and biomechanics have focused attention on the ubiquitous role of growth and remodeling of tissues. This volume should be of interest to cardiovascular researchers in particular, and to bioengineers and biomechanics soft tissue researchers in general.
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A.D. McCulloch active stress adventitia analysis angle anisotropic arterial wall axial force axis biaxial mechanical biaxial testing biological tissues Biomech Biomechanics birefringence blood flow canine cardiac Cauchy stress cerebral cerebral aneurysms changes circumferential collagen collagen fibers components computed configuration constitutive model contractile coordinates cylindrical deformation distribution elastic Engrg equation fiber direction fibre Figure finite element finite element method growth heart incompressible increased intracranial isotropic J.D. Humphrey L.A. Taber layer left ventricle left ventricular lesions loading material constants material parameters matrix measured mechanical behavior mechanical properties mechanical response membrane mmHg morphogenesis myocardial myocardium nonlinear normal orientation orthotropic passive pericardium Physiol predicted pressure radius region residual stresses rupture saccular aneurysms sarcomere shear stress sheet smooth muscle cells soft tissues specimen stiffness strain tensor strain-energy function stress-strain stretch ratio structure systolic three-dimensional torsion transmural transverse tube undeformed values valve vascular ventricular mechanics vessel viscoelastic wall thickness Y.C. Fung