Carotid Artery Disease

Front Cover
PMPH-USA, 2010 - Medical - 344 pages
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These books contain the latest discoveries, techniques, practice and out comes in vascular surgery. There are approximately 25 to 45 chapters in each book, classified under the following headings: cerebrovascular, ischemia, infrainguinal lesions, aortic aneurysm, thoracic aortic pathology, aorta and its major branches, upper extremity ischemia, venous disorders, hemodialysis access, endovascular technology, noninvasive test, and issues in vascular surgery. Each of the chapters contains valuable illustrations, tables, and a list of references to guide the reader through the chapter. All chapters are reviewed and edited by the editors (James S. T. Yao, William Pearce, Jon Matsumura, Mark Morasch, and Mark Eskandari). This series of books ( 5 in all) is focused on specific topics in vascular surgery. For each title the editors will assume the responsibility of adding the latest information and new chapters and to update all of the content, thus making these books more cohesive and with newer, up-to-date information. The resulting product is a comprehensive review of current knowledge across all of vascular surgery, covering: Carotid Artery Diseases, Surgery of the Aorta, Venous Disorders, Endovascular technology and Ischemic Extremities.
 

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Contents

Screening Program for Stroke Prevention
3
CAUSES OF STROKE
4
TREATMENTS FOR THE PREVENTION OF STROKE
6
SCREENING FOR STROKE
8
SELECTION OF INDIVIDUALS FOR SCREENING
10
RESULTS OF STROKE SCREENING PROGRAMS
11
REFERENCES
12
Controversies in Vascular Screening
15
Preventable Complications of Carotid Stenting
161
HIGHRISK TARGET LESIONS ANATOMIC AND PATHOLOGIC
165
EPDS AND STENTS
166
SYSTEMIC COMPLICATIONS
168
CONCLUSION
170
Nonneurologic Complications Associated with Carotid Stent
173
POSTPROCEDURALDELAYED EVENTS
179
REFERENCES
182

WHAT TO SCREEN FOR AND HOW?
18
WHO TO SCREEN?
19
STANDARDS FOR SCREENING
20
The Leapfrog Recommendations in Vascular Surgery
23
VOLUMEBASED OUTCOMES
24
PROCESS AND OUTCOMES
25
THE LEAPFROG RECOMMENDATIONS
26
COMMENTS
27
The Significance of Silent Infarctions of the Brain
29
SILENT BRAIN INFARCTIONS FROM MICROATHEROEMBOLI AS A CAUSE OF VASCULAR DEMENTIA
31
RESEARCH EVIDENCE THAT MICROATHEROEMBOLI CAN CAUSE LACUNAR TYPE INFARCTIONS
34
CONCLUSION
35
REFERENCES
36
Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Atherosclerotic Plaque
39
MR PLAQUE IMAGING METHODS
40
CHARACTERIZATION OF PLAQUE COMPOSITION WITH MRI
42
FUTURE DIRECTIONS
44
REFERENCES
45
Tips on Coding for Endovascular Procedures
49
PROCEDURAL CODING
50
CATHETER MANIPULATION
52
IMAGING
53
ENDOVASCULAR INTERVENTION
54
INTERVENTIONAL CODING DESCRIPTIONS
55
ADDITIONAL BILLING ISSUES
58
SUMMARY
59
Carotid Stenting for Carotid Stenosis
61
Guidelines for Training and Credentialing in Carotid Artery Stenting
63
REFERENCES
68
Assessing Competence in the Components of Vascular Surgery
71
MAINTENANCE OF CERTIFICATION
74
CASE REQUIREMENTS FOR RESIDENCY TRAINING
75
CASE REQUIREMENTS FOR HOSPITAL PRIVILEGING FOR VASCULAR SURGERY TRAINEES
76
TRAINING REQUIREMENTS FOR NEW PROCEDURES FOR ALREADY CREDENTIALED SURGEONS
78
DISCUSSION
79
REFERENCES
80
Preprocedure Imaging to Facilitate Carotid Artery Stenting
81
CONCLUSIONS
88
Evaluation of Cerebrovascular Anatomy During Carotid Bifurcation Stenting
91
CEREBRAL VASCULAR ANATOMY
92
VARIATIONS
94
REFERENCES
96
Techniques in Carotid Angioplasty and Stenting
97
Techniques for Carotid Artery Stenting
99
TRANSBRACHIAL APPROACH
101
TRANSCERVICAL APPROACH
103
EMBOLIC PROTECTION DEVICES
104
BALLOON ANGIOPLASTY
106
STENTS
107
CONCLUSION
108
Cerebral Protection Devices During Carotid Stenting
109
CAS WITHOUT CEREBRAL PROTECTION
110
BALLOON OCCLUSION OF THE ICA
111
FILTERS
113
REVERSAL FLOW
114
CONCLUSION
116
REFERENCES
117
Single Center Experience of Carotid Artery Stenting
119
MATERIALS AND METHODS Patients
120
RESULTS
121
DISCUSSION
122
REFERENCES
125
Carotid Stent Trials
127
Should NASCET and ACAS be Repeated?
129
REASONS NOT TO REPEAT A TRIAL
130
THE NASCET TRIAL
131
NEW DATA
133
CONCLUSION
135
Current Status of CREST Carotid Revascularization Endarterectomy vs Stent Trial
137
CURRENT TECHNICAL CONSIDERATIONS IN PERFORMANCE OF CAS
138
CREST ORGANIZATION PLAN
143
RESULTS FROM THE CREST LEADIN REGISTRY
144
Update to ACT I
147
HIGH RISK FOR CAS CONCEPT
148
ACT I
149
SUMMARY
150
Lessons Learned from Italian Registry for Carotid Stenting RISC in 1000 Cases
153
METHODS
154
RESULTS
155
DISCUSSION
156
REFERENCES
157
Perioperative Care after Carotid Stent Intervention
159
Surveillance Duplex Scanning after Carotid Stent Angioplasty
185
CAROTID DUPLEX TESTING AND SURVEILLANCE PROTOCOL
186
DUPLEX SCAN INTERPRETATION
188
CONTRALATERAL CAROTID DISEASE SURVEILLANCE
190
UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH FLORIDA EXPERIENCE
191
REFERENCES
194
Techniques and Outcomes in Carotid Endarterectomy
197
Contemporary Carotid Endarterectomy Results in the United States
199
EARLY EXPERIENCE IN THE UNITED STATES
200
CONTEMPORARY USA EXPERIENCE
201
SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS
203
CONCLUSIONS
206
REFERENCES
207
Performance Measurement for Carotid Endarterectomy
209
OUTCOME MEASURES
210
PROCESS MEASURES
212
STRUCTURAL MEASURES
214
QUALITY IMPROVEMENT
215
CURRENT PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT EFFORTS
216
SUMMARY
217
REFERENCES
218
Effect of Statins on Carotid Endarterectomy
221
STATINS AND CARDIOVASCULR SURGERY
223
STATINS AND STROKE
224
PLEIOTROPIC EFFECTS OF STATINS
227
STATINS DURING THE PERIOPERATIVE PERIOD
228
REFERENCES
229
Surgery for CoilsKinks and RadiationInjured Carotid Artery
233
SURGICAL TREATMENT
234
SUMMARY
236
RADIATIONINJURED CAROTID ARTERY
237
SUMMARY
238
Durability of Redo Carotid Operations
239
INCIDENCE OF RECURRENT CAROTID STENOSIS
241
MORBIDITY OF RECURRENT CAROTID OPERATIONS
243
DURABITY OF REDO CAROTID OPERATIONS
245
FREEDOM FROM SECONDARY RESTENOSIS
247
LATE RESULTS AFTER CAS
248
Cerebrovascular Revascularization Procedures
251
Complex Carotid and Vertebral Revascularizations
253
CROSSING THE NECK THROUGH THE RETROPHARYNGEAL TUNNEL
254
APPROACH TO THE HIGH CERVICAL INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY
257
ANTERIORC2C1 AND POSTERIOR C0C1 APPROACH TO THE DISTAL CERVICAL VERTEBRAL ARTERY
260
REFERENCES
263
Hybrid Procedure for SupraAortic Trunk Lesions
265
ETIOLOGY
266
INDICATIONS FOR TREATMENT
267
IMAGING STUDIES
268
TECHNIQUES OF ENDOVASCULAR THERAPY
269
COMPLICATIONS OF ENDOVASCULAR THERAPY
272
REFERENCES
273
Cervical Carotid Bypass
277
COMMON CAROTID ARTERY BYPASS
278
INTERNAL CAROTID BYPASS
279
RESULTS
280
CONCLUSION
281
Subclavian Artery Reconstruction
283
SURGICAL TREATMENT
285
CONCLUSION
288
Other Carotid Pathology
289
Endovascular Treatment of Carotid Dissection
291
INDICATIONS
292
NONFLOWLIMITING DISSECTIONS WITH EMBOLISM
293
FLOWLIMITING DISSECTIONS WITHOUT EMBOLIC PHENOMENON
294
FLOWLIMITING DISSECTIONS WITH EMBOLIC PHENOMENON
298
TECHNIQUE
301
REFERENCES
302
Carotid Body Tumors and Cervical Schwannoma Tumors
305
CERVICAL SCHWANNOMAS
314
REFERENCES
316
Contemporary Management of Carotid Stenosis Carotid Endarterectomy is Here to Stay
317
CAROTID ENDARTERECTOMYSTATE OF THE ART
318
CAROTID ARTERY ANGIOPLASTY AND STENTING
320
DISCUSSION
324
CONCLUSION
326
Carotid Artery Stenting versus Open Surgery Stent
329
CAS TRIALS
330
CONCLUSION
332
REFERENCES
333
Index
335
Copyright

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About the author (2010)

James S.T. Yao, MD, PhDEmeritus Professor of Surgery Feinberg School of Medicine Northwestern University, Chicago IL

William H. Pearce, MDViolet R. & Charles A. Baldwin Professor of Vascular Surgery Chief of the Division of Vascular SurgeryFeinberg School of MedicineNorthwestern University, Chicago IL

Jon S. Matsumura, MD; Mark D. Morasch, MD

Mark K. Eskandari, MDAssociate Professors of Surgery Division of Vascular Surgery Feinberg School of MedicineNorthwestern University, Chicago IL

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