Carpentry and Joinery: A Practical Treatise on Simple Building Construction, Including Framing, Roof Construction, General Carpentry Work, and Exterior and Interior Finish of Buildings

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American school of correspondence, 1915 - Carpentry - 262 pages
 

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Page 161 - The size of the plate should be in proportion to the size of the timbers, so as to make the most economical combination. If we have two pieces of timber out of which we wish to make a compound girder, it is almost always possible to get a stronger combination by placing them one on top of the other, than by placing them side by side. This is because the strength of a beam varies as the square of its depth, but only directly as its width.
Page 145 - PQ still another, running parallel to the rafters. Now since all the rafters slope upwards from the plate to the ridge, it is evident that the tops of all the studs must be cut on a bevel if they are to fit closely against the under sides of the rafters.
Page 108 - The stairs are built on frames called " stringers " or "carriages," which may be considered _ as a part of the floor framing. They consist of pieces of plank two or three inches thick and twelve or more inches wide, which are cut to form the steps of the stairs and which are then set up in place. There are usually three of these stringers under each flight of stairs, one at each side and a third in the center, and they are fastened at the bottom to the floor and at the top to the joists which form...
Page 95 - Fig. 97 shows a double stirrup-iron hanger in use. Patent hangers as shown in Fig. 98 are by far the best. If hangers of any kind are used, there will be no cutting of the girder except at the ends where it frames into the sill, and even there a hanger may be used. The girder may be placed so that the joists will be flush with it on top, or so that it is flush Fig.
Page 52 - ... such a joint is not stiff and strong, and it is often necessary to bring the timbers flush with each other at the top or at the bottom. For this reason a mortised joint is used; and in order to obtain the required amount of bearing surface without cutting the pieces too much, the form of tenon shown is employed. The available bearing area here is furnished by the surfaces da and bc and it may easily be seen that this area is the same as would be available if the piece rested directly on top of...
Page 107 - ... supports. Plank bridging is not very effective for stiffening the floor, and cross bridging is always preferred. This bridging is somewhat like the diagonal bridging used in the walls, and consists of pieces of scantling, usually one-by-three or two-by-three in size, cut in diagonally between the floor joists. Each piece is nailed to the top of one joist and to the bottom of the next ; and two pieces which cross each other are set close together between the same two joists, forming a sort of...
Page 85 - In a balloon frame it often happens that the studs are not long enough to reach from the sill to the plate and they must be pieced out with short pieces which are spliced onto the long stud. This splicing is called "fishing...
Page 131 - Fig. 188, while at the right a section of the other type is shown. The studs CC which form the side walls of the dormer, are notched over the trimmer rafters and roof boarding about 1 inch, and allowed to continue downward to the attic floor. This is shown at section D D. At E is a section of the trimmer rafter...
Page 174 - G is placed between the nuts or. bolt heads and the wood to prevent the crushing of the latter. Washers should be used with all bolts for this purpose. Fig.
Page 73 - A bed of mortar A, preferably of cement mortar, should be prepared on the top of the underpinning, in which the sill C should rest; and the under side of the sill should be painted with one or two coats of linseed oil to prevent it from absorbing moisture from the masonry. In many cases, at intervals of eight or ten feet, long bolts B are set into the masonry.

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