Cause and Prevention of Clogging of Wells Abstracting Groundwater from Unconsolidated Aquifers
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Groundwater serves many purposes. It is a source of public and private drinking water, it is utilized as an industrial feedstock and it is used in agriculture for irrigation and cattle watering. The abstraction of groundwater also serves many civil engineering purposes such as structures, construction pit dewatering and remediation of polluted groundwater. Furthermore, groundwater is increasingly used for supply and storage of energy for the cooling and heating of buildings. Many wells abstracting groundwater suffer from impaired performance as a result of clogging by mechanical or biogeochemical processes. This represents a significant economic loss due to volume reductions, cost of well rehabilitations or construction of new wells.
Cause and Prevention of Clogging of Wells Abstracting Groundwater from Unconsolidated Aquifers provides a comprehensive description of the various causes and processes associated with well clogging in addition to describing methodologies for diagnosis and prevention.
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abstracted groundwater abstraction rate adsorption alumino silicates anoxic aquifer Beek biological iron removal biological oxidation bore clogging calcite particles calcium carbonate carrousel cation chloride clay minerals concentration of particles Consequently continuous abstraction corrosion decrease discharge rate drawdown drilling mud elemental entrance velocity Fe2+ feldspars field Figure fraction frequency distribution function gas bubbles goethite grains gravel pack groundwater abstraction heterogeneous oxidation homogeneous oxidation hours/month increase iron hydroxide iron hydroxide precipitates iron oxidation iron sulfides iron(II kaolinite laminar methane mg/l mmol/l monitor Netherlands Nieuwegein Noordbergum number of particles organic matter oxidation of iron(II oxygen concentration Pareto distribution particle concentration particle counter particle diameter particle size distribution particles 2 Ám particles containing particles in abstracted pore throats present quartz redox redox interface sample valve saturated screen slot clogging sediments shows silicates silicon submersible pump sulfur surface switching Tull turbulent flow Waal water utility Vitens