Causes, Correlates and Consequences of Death Among Older Adults: Some Methodological Approaches and Substantive Analyses
Springer Science & Business Media, Sep 30, 1998 - Business & Economics - 186 pages
All humans eventually die, but life expectancies differ over time and among different demographic groups. Teasing out the various causes and correlates of death is a challenge, and it is one we take on in this book. A look at the data on mortality is both interesting and suggestive of some possible relationships. In 1900 life expectancies at birth were 46. 3 and 48. 3 years for men and women respectively, a gender differential of a bit less than 5 percent. Life expectancies for whites then were about 0. 3 years longer than that of the whole population, but life expectancies for blacks were only about 33 years for men and women. At age 65, the remaining life expectancies were about 12 and 11 years for whites and blacks respectively. Fifty years later, life expectancies at birth had grown to 66 and 71 years for males and females respectively. The percentage differential between the sexes was now almost up to 10 percent. The life expectancies of whites were about one year longer than that for the entire population. The big change was for blacks, whose life expectancy had grown to over 60 years with black females living about 5 percent longer than their male counterparts. At age 65 the remaining expected life had increased about two years with much larger percentage gains for blacks.
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Accelerated-Time-to-Failure Models age-specific death rates assumptions behavior birth cohorts blacks calculated censoring chapter choice coefficient estimates Cohort Born consumption covariates Cox Models differences differential distribution Divorced/Separated Dorn Sample earnings Economic effects elasticities Estimate t-statistic Estimates of Hazard expected Female Heads functional forms gender Grossman Hazard Functions hazard rate heads of household health production function individuals life-table likelihood function Live until age males marginal utility marital status Maximum Penalized Likelihood method of moments Monte Carlo Estimates mortality hazard mortality tables MPLE never married non-whites Nonparametric NPMLE Number of bins observed occupational risk pension income percent period physical activity points of support proportional hazard model PSID rates of return Retirement History Survey Risk Index SIMEST simulated smoking smoothing parameter Social Security benefits Social Security System spouse studies Supplemental Security Income Taubman taxes paid unobserved heterogeneity utility variables Weibull proportional hazard whites widowed women
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