Causes and Consequences of 'Gendered' Communication
GRIN Verlag, 2009 - 52 pages
Seminar paper from the year 2008 in the subject English - Pedagogy, Didactics, Literature Studies, grade: 1,0, Free University of Berlin (Institut fur Englische Philologie), course: Linguistic Gender Studies, language: English, abstract: As Donna Haraway states, all the modern feminist meanings of gender, despite differences, have roots in Simone de Beauvoir's claim that 'one is not born a woman' (de Beauvoir, 1949; 1952, p.249) and in post-Second World War social conditions. Those conditions have enabled constructions of women as a collective historical subject-in-process. The concept of Gender was developed to question and contest the naturalization of sexual difference in multiple areas of struggle. "Feminist theory and practice around gender seek to explain and change historical systems of sexual difference, whereby 'men' and 'women' are socially constructed and positioned in relations of hierarchy and antagonism." (Haraway 1991). The refusal to become or to remain a 'gendered' 'woman' or 'man' is a political challenge also against the imaginary narrative of sex and race. Gender refers primarily but not exclusively to women. It defines the term 'women' as a very broad and internally differentiated category that includes differences as the highly relevant variables of class, ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation and age. Of interest are the visible and invisible power mechanisms that influence women's access to responsibility in social, economic, political, religious, intellectual and cultural life. "Male" and "female" are culturally produced, socially constructed categories and language is often seen as part of what constructs, maintains and reflects these categories. But on the other hand, we need categories to be able to analyse, study and describe in order to find solutions for change. Gender is transdisciplinary and a study of language, that is an essential basis for active participation in society is important. Today's gender topics are not only of import
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Beauvoir behaviour Causes and consequences collectivism collectivistic societies communication patterns communication style communicative competence communicative genre communities of practice competitive complaint stories concept Connell consequences of gendered Constructing emotional reciprocity constructivist approach conversation styles cross cultural psychology cross-ethnic communication differences in communication different cultural dominance Donna Haraway Eckert Englische Philologie example expert status female Feminist Forst Freie Universität Berlin Gender in Context gender specific Haraway hegemonic male hegemonic masculine Helga & Ruth Helga Kotthoff hierarchy HS Linguistic important in-group individualistic and collectivistic Institut für Englische Jennifer Coates knowledge Lakoff Language and Gender linguistic features Linguistic Gender Studies linguistic interaction McConnell-Ginet minimal responses narrative genres narrator non-verbal nonverbal communication norms O’Barr participants political powerless language prosodic protagonist Reader reciprocity among women Ruth Wodak eds Second Sex sexual Sidnell situation social status socially constructed sociolinguistic Strohschneider styles and patterns stylization subcultures Susanne Günthner TV discussions values Western Washington University women’s language