Tourism Crises: Causes, Consequences and Management
Chapter 1: Introduction I Learning Objectives 1 Introduction 1 Tourism Crises, Causes and Consequences 3 Characteristics of the Tourism Industry 6 Vulnerabi ity of the Tourism Industry to Crisis 8 Managing rTourism Crises 9 Researching Tourism Crises 11 Summary and Conclusions 12 Concept Definitions 12 Review Questions 13 Additional Readings 13 Referen es 13 Chapter 2: Economic Tourism Crises 17 Learning Objectives 17 Introduction 17 The Economics of Tourism 18 Currency Rates and Controls 20 Escalating Costs 21 Touri.sm's Economic Impacts 23 Addressing the Problem of Adverse Economic Impacts 26 Summary and Conclusions 26 Case One: The Japanese Outbound Market in the 1990s 27 Case Two: The Asian Financial Crisis 28 Concept Definitions 29 Review Questions 29 Additional Readings 30 References 30 Chapter 3: Political Tourism Crises 33 Learning Objectives . 33 Introduction 33 Politics, Governments and Tourism 34 Political Ideologies and Tourism 35 Political Instability and Tourism Crises 36 Questions of Timescale and Geography 41 Review 42 Responding to Political Tourism Crises 44 Sumnmary and Conclusions 45 Case One: The Government, Tourism and Boycott Debate in Myanmar/B, Burma 46 Case Two: The Kidnapping and Release of Tour Operator Customers in Yemen 47 Concept Definitions 49 Review Questions 49 Additional Readings . 49 References 50 Chapter 4: Terrorism and Tourism 52 L earning Objectives 52 Introduction 52 The Global .rihreat of Terrorism 53 Tourism and Terrorism 54 Travel Advisories 60 Responding to Terrorism 62 Prevention Strategies 63 Su mmary and Conclusions 64 Case One: Bombings in Bali 65 Case Two: 11 September 2001 66 Concept Definitions 68 Review Questions 68 Additional Readings 69 References 69 Chapter 5: Socio-Cultural Conflicts and Tourism 72 Learning Objectives 72 irntroduction 72 Socio-Cultural Impacts of Tourism 73 Socio-Cuitural Conditions and Tourism Crises 75 Crime and Tourism 77 Managing Socio-Cultural Tourism Crises 78 Summary and Conclusions 81 Case One: Crime Against Tourists in Florida 81 Case Tino: Crime by Tourists in Rhodes, Greece 82 Concept Definitions 83 Review Qu estions 83 Additional Readings: 84 References 84 Chapter 6: Environmental Tourism Crises 87 Learning Objectives 87 Introduction 87 Tourism and Environmental Damage 88 Other Causes of Environmental Crises and Tourism 90 Natural Disasters and Tourism 92 Responding to Environmental Tourism Crises 94 Summary and Conclusions 96 Case One: Air Pollution in South East Asia 97 Case Two: Thailand and the Indian Ocean Tsunami 97 Concept Definitions 99 Review Questions 100 Additional Readings 100 References 100 Chapter 7: Tourism and Health Crises 104 Learning Objectives 104 Introduction 1i04 Overview 105 Risks to Health When Traveling 105 Health Risks at Destinations 107 Infectious Diseases 108 Risky Behavior 110 Sex and Tourism 110 Adventure Tourism 112 Responding to Health Concerns and Crises 112 Sunmmary and Conclusions 116 Case One: Airlines and DVT 116 Case Two: The 2003 SARS Epidemic 118 Concept Definitions 119 Review Questions: I19 Additional Readings 120 References 120 Chapter 8: Technological Failure and Toiurism 124 LeIarning Objectives 124 introduction 124 Iransport Accidents and Tourism 125 The Private Car 126 Bus and Coach, Rail and Sea Travel 127 Civil Aviation 129 Fire H-azards 131 Information Technology Failure 134 Other Ty pes of Technological Failure 135 Responses to Techno ogical Failure 136 Summary and Conclusions 137 Case One: MS Hera d of Free Enterprise 138 Case Two: Boeing 747s' Collision in Tenerife 139 Concept Definitions 140 Review Questions 140 Additional Readings 140 References 141 Chapter 9: Commercial Crises 145 Learning Objectives 145 ntroduction 145 Forms of Commercial Crises 146 Changing Demand 147 Internationalization 148 Competition 149 Quesions of Finance 150 Staffing Issues 151 Industrial Action 152 Smaller Enterprises and Commercial Crises 154 Summary and Conclusions 155 Case One: Disney in Hong Kong 156 Case Two: Singaipore's Low-cost Airlines 157 Concept Definitions 158 Review Questions . 158 Additional Readings 159 References 159 Chapter 10: Crisis, Tourism and Tourism Crisis Management 163 introduction 163 Reviewv 163 Importance of Tourism Crisis Management 164 Stages in Tourism Crisis Managemrent 164 Distinctive Features of Tourism Crisis Management Plans 168 Role of Partnerships 169 Looking Ahead 170 Conclusion 171 Review Questionls 171 Case One: PATA Crisis Management Strategy 171 Case Two: Banyan Tree and the Indian Ocean Tsunami .177 References 178.
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Economic Tourism Crises
Political Tourism Crises
Terrorism and Tourism
SocioCultural Conflicts and Tourism
Environmental Tourism Crises
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