Central Africans, Atlantic Creoles, and the Foundation of the Americas, 1585-1660
This book establishes Central Africa as the origin of most Africans brought to English and Dutch American colonies in North America, the Caribbean, and South America before 1660. It reveals that Central Africans were frequently possessors of an Atlantic Creole culture and places the movement of slaves and creation of the colonies within an Atlantic historical framework.
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2 The Portuguese Kongo and Ndongo and the Origins of Atlantic Creole Culture to 1607
3 Wars Civil Unrest and the Dynamics of Enslavement in West Central Africa 16071660
Patterns of Transformation and Adaptations 16071660
Atlantic Creoles in the Early AngloDutch Colonies
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Afonso Alvaro Ambaca American Amsterdam Angola Anthony Antonio ARA OWIC areas army arrived Atlantic Creole culture baptism baptized Barbados Bengo Benguela Bento Banha Cardoso Bermuda Brazil Cadornega Cambambe captives captured Caribbean Cavazzi Central African Charter Christian church coast colonies Congo Court creolization Dias de Novais Dickenson documents Dutch English and Dutch enslaved European export Fern˜ao de Sousa ﬁrst Francisco Garcia governor Hist´oria Imbangala inﬂuence Istorica Descrizione Jesuits Jo˜ao John Kasanje Kikongo Kimbundu king kingdom kingdom of Kongo Kisama Kongo Kongolese Kwanza Kwanza River Laer lands Lefroy Loango Luanda Luso-African Manuel Maria Massangano Matamba Mbamba Mbundu Mendes de Vasconcelos merchants Missione Evangelica MSS Araldi names Ndongo Negroes Njinga Nugent October ofﬁcials Paulo Pedro Pieter Plantation population Portugal Portuguese priests privateers Purchas records region Relac¸˜ao religious rulers S˜ao Salvador settlers slave ships slave trade slavery sobas Sousa to sons Soyo Spanish Virginia voyage West Central