Central Processing of Visual Information A: Integrative Functions and Comparative Data
H. Autrum, P. O. Bishop, V. Braitenberg, K. L. Chow, R. L. De Valois, R. B. Freeman, W. A. van de Grind, O.-J. Grüsser, U. Grüsser-Cornehls, R. Jung, W. R. Levick, H.-U. Lunkenheimer, D. M. MacKay, M. Snyder, J. Stone, N. J. Strausfeld, I. Thomas
Springer Berlin Heidelberg, Nov 26, 1973 - Medical - 800 pages
The present volume covers the physiology of the visual system beyond the optic nerve. It is a continuation of the two preceding parts on the photochemistry and the physiology of the eye, and forms a bridge from them to the fourth part on visual psychophysics. These fields have all developed as independent speciali ties and need integrating with each other. The processing of visual information in the brain cannot be understood without some knowledge of the preceding mechanisms in the photoreceptor organs. There are two fundamental reasons, ontogenetic and functional, why this is so: 1) the retina of the vertebrate eye has developed from a specialized part of the brain; 2) in processing their data the eyes follow physiological principles similar to the visual brain centres. Peripheral and central functions should also be discussed in context with their final synthesis in subjective experience, i. e. visual perception. Microphysiology and ultramicroscopy have brought new insights into the neuronal basis of vision. These investigations began in the periphery: HARTLINE'S pioneering experiments on single visual elements of Limulus in 1932 started a successful period of neuronal recordings which ascended from the retina to the highest centres in the visual brain. In the last two decades modern electron microscopic techniques and photochemical investigations of single photoreceptors further contributed to vision research.
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Terminology and Methods
General Concepts and Synthetic Views
Neuronal Receptive Fields and Perceptive Fields in Human Vision
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acuity adaptation afferent Amer area 17 BISHOP Brain Res brightness cat's color vision complex cone contrast correlates cortical neurones dark direction DS-neurons effect elicited excitation excitatory eye movements fibres fixation flashes flicker stimuli fovea function GRüssBR horizontal horopter HUBEL and WIESEL hypercomplex illumination impulse inhibitory input lateral geniculate body lateral geniculate nucleus lateral inhibition LGN cells light Lond luminance macaque maintained discharge mechanisms monkey moving neural neuronal response neurons Neurophysiol oculomotor off-centre on-center neurons opponent cells optic nerve orientation pattern perception Pflügers Arch Physiol physiological potentials processing Psychol psychophysical receptive field disparities receptors region retinal ganglion cells retinal image RF-center saccadic sensitivity sensory signals single sinusoidal spatial stationary stereopsis stimulus stimulus frequency striate cortex studies superior colliculus surround synaptic tectum temporal threshold types units velocity vertical Vision Res visual cortex visual field visual perception visual system wavelengths