Ceramic Sensors: Technology and Applications
From the Author's Preface
Ceramic sensors have been in use for more than thirty years. Since ceramics exhibit a number of specific characteristics that enable their cost to become lower and their reliability to increase, they have occupied a significant position in sensor technology. This is why many companies and universities have directed their efforts towards investigating and developing new ceramic sensors and expanding their areas of application.
To the best of our knowledge.., there [has been] no book treating different sensors on the basis of their common physical and chemical properties, technological principles, and applications. This book [is] a detailed survey of ceramic sensors and a generalization of the results achieved in this field so far. Ceramic sensors for different physical quantities are discussed without going too deep into theory...
The concept of ceramic sensors includes all sensors that are produced using ceramic technology. It also covers thick film sensors, since from a structural and technological point of view, they can be regarded as a variety of ceramic sensors. The subject of scientific research in this book is humidity, gas. temperature, and pressure sensors on the basis of semiconductor and dielectric ceramic materials and solid electrolytes.
Special attention is paid to the physical and chemical, as well as the technological, bases of ceramic sensors, their classification, the types of materials used... , the methods of controlling their parameters and characteristics, the areas of application, and the electric circuits for connecting the sensors.
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Definitions and Classifications of Sensors
PhysicalChemical and Technological Principles
Ceramic Humidity Sensors
Ceramic Gas Sensors
Ceramic Temperature Sensors
Ceramic Pressure Sensors
acceptor According adsorbed adsorption ambient temperature application atoms band basis BaTiO2 bridge circuit capacitance ceramic grains ceramic humidity sensors ceramic materials ceramic sensors characteristics components composition conductivity constant crystal current-voltage decreases degaussing detection determined dielectric doped electrical electrons element F1GURE forbidden band frequency gas sensors grain boundaries grain surface heat heater high sensitivity hysteresis impurity increases influence input ionic ions lattice layer limits linear manufactured maximum sensitivity measured metal molecules multivibrator operating temperature operational amplifier orders of magnitude oxides oxygen sensors parameters perature phase transition pores porous potential barrier pressure properties proton PTC-thermistors range reducing gases relative humidity relay resistance changes resistor response semiconductor sensor resistance shown in Figure signal sintering sintering temperature sitivity SnO2 solid electrolytes stability structure temperature sensors thermistor thick film sensors TiO2 tion ture valence band varistor voltage water vapor