The Barrel Cortex of Rodents: Volume 11: The Barrel Cortex of Rodents

Front Cover
Edward G. Jones, Irving T. Diamond
Springer Science & Business Media, Jan 31, 1995 - Medical - 446 pages
The barrel area is a unique specialization of the cerebral cortex, shared by many species of rodents and some marsupials, in which the somatotopic map of the body surface receives direct morphological expression. Here, the homogeneous sheet of layer IV granule cells seen in most mammals is fractured into large archipelagos, each representing one of the larger subdivisions of the contra lateral half-body. Within these larger domains are smaller aggregates of granule cells that contain the concentrated terminations of thalamocortical fibers bear ing messages emanating from constellations of receptors located in finer subdi visions of a body part. These smaller aggregates are particularly well-defined in the representation of the face, where they form a one-to-one representation of the sinus hairs or vibrissae and where they have been given the name barrels. The first inklings of the unique structure of the parietal cortex of rodents came in the study of Droogleever-Fortuyn (1914), who remarked on the pres ence in it of clouds of granule cells 0. 5-1 mm in diameter, which he thought were in some way associated with concentrations of nerve fibers. Little attention, however, was paid to his observations. Lorente de N 6 (1922) later observed dense focal concentrations of afferent fiber ramifications in Golgi preparations of the mouse cortex, calling them glomeruli, and these can now be seen as the structures that form the hearts of the barrels and around which the granule cells concentrate.
 

What people are saying - Write a review

We haven't found any reviews in the usual places.

Contents

Comparative Aspects of Barrel Structure and Development
1
2 Variations in Barrel Expression
5
22 Solid Barrels
7
23 Indistinct Barrels
10
25 2Deoxyglucose Uptake in Barrels
12
3 Phyletic Considerations
14
4 Why Are There Barrels?
18
42 Dependence on Peripheral Innervation and Trigeminothalamic Connections
22
5 Intrinsic Synaptic Circuitry
244
52 Intercolumnar Connections
245
53 Synaptic Interactions Involving Intrinsic Axons in Barrel Cortex
246
6 Projections to Subcortical Areas
248
71 Generation of SingleWhisker Receptive Fields
249
72 Generation of MultipleWhisker Receptive Fields
250
73 Spatial and Temporal Integration
251
8 Conclusions
252

43 Factors Related to Clustering
25
5 Factors Contributing to Interspecies Differences in Barrel Structure and Size
26
51 Brain Size
27
52 Connectional Components
28
53 Factors Influencing Barrel Size
30
54 Functional Contributions
32
6 Comparative Barrel Development
33
61 Laminar Differentiation
34
62 Barrel Development
38
63 Changes in Barrel Morphology during Maturation
39
64 Lack of Barrel Development in Some Species
43
7 Mystacial Pad Structure and Innervation as Related to Barrel Morphology
44
72 Vibrissa Innervation and Barrel Morphology
46
73 Intervibrissa Fur and Barrel Morphology
48
8 Why Are There Septa?
53
9 Barrels in Relation to Multiple Representations
56
10 Summary
59
11 References
62
Organization and Development of the Forepaw Representation in Forepaw Barrel Subfield in Somatosensory Cortex of Rat
77
Layer IV Organization in Nonrodent versus Rodent SI Cortex
78
13 Barrel Field Identification
79
14 Forepaw Nomenclature
80
15 Representation of the Forepaw in the FBS of Rat SI Cortex
83
16 Other Investigations of the Forepaw Representation
95
What Is Represented by the Barrels in the FBS?
98
22 When Does the FBS Develop in SI Cortex?
99
23 When Can Responses First Be Evoked in SI Cortex by Forepaw Stimulation?
101
24 What Are the Consequences of Peripheral Deafferentation on FBS Development?
104
25 What Is Represented in the FBS of Deafferented Rats?
108
26 How Does the Development of the FBS Relate to the Development of Other Subfields?
111
27 Summary
117
3 Concluding Comments
118
4 References
119
What Makes Subcortical Barrels? Requisite Trigeminal Circuitry and Developmental Mechanisms
123
Adulthood
124
Normal Development
144
Afferent Influences on Development
146
ActivityDependent Topographic Refinement?
150
Hypotheses
161
NGF Experiments
167
73 Behavior
168
76 V Ganglia Qualitative Observations
169
77 V Ganglia Quantitative Observations
170
78 Cytochrome Oxidase Staining Patterns
171
79 Interpretations
174
8 References
178
Somatosensory Thalamus of the Rat
189
2 The Set of Thalamic Nuclei that Project to Barrel Cortex
190
3 The Posterior Complex PO
192
31 Projection of POm to Barrel Cortex
193
33 Topographic Organization of POm
197
35 Integration of Sensory Inputs
200
36 Caudal PO a Functionally Distinct Sector of the Posterior Complex
202
4 Ventral Posterior Medial Nucleus
203
43 Topographic Organization of VPM
205
44 Functional Properties of VPM
206
5 Somatosensory Submodalities
207
6 Specializations of the Rat Somatosensory Thalamus
208
7 Cortical Integration of Thalamic Inputs
210
72 Cortical Response to Whisker Movement
212
8 References
215
Synaptic Organization of the Barrel Cortex
221
2 Cellular Architecture of the Barrel Cortex
222
22 Lamination in the Barrel Cortex
225
3 Cell Classes in the Barrel Cortex
226
32 Nonpyramidal Neurons
229
33 Dendrites in Barrel Cortex
230
34 Axons in Barrel Cortex
232
35 Synapses in Barrel Cortex
233
4 Afferents to the Barrel Cortex
234
41 Thalamocortical Inputs to the Barrel Cortex
236
42 Corticocortical Connections in the Barrel Cortex
243
9 References
253
Neuronal Integration in the Somatosensory WhiskerBarrel Cortex
263
2 Whisking Behavior
265
3 Functional Cytoarchitecture
268
4 Inhibition and Receptive Field Organization
271
5 Activity Gradients
272
6 Intrabarrel Heterogeneities
274
7 Diverse Temporal Effects of Whisker Stimuli
275
8 Pharmacological Manipulations of Receptive Field Properties
280
9 Operational Features of Barrel Circuitry
282
10 Response Transformations in Simulated Barrels
287
11 What Does a Barrel Do?
291
12 References
293
Intrinsic Physiology and Morphology of Single Neurons in Neocortex
299
2 Morphological Distinctions between Cortical Neurons
300
31 RegularSpiking RS Neurons
303
33 FastSpiking FS Neurons
306
34 Other Intrinsic Patterns of Firing
307
35 Comparative Aspects of Neuronal Physiology in Neocortex
308
36 Dynamic Variations in Intrinsic Firing Patterns 309
309
4 Relationships between Cortical Structure and Intrinsic Physiology of Neurons
310
42 Morphological Differences between RS and IB Cells in Layer V
311
43 Subcortical Projections and Intrinsic Physiology
312
44 Relationships between Afferent Connections and Intrinsic Neuronal Physiology
313
45 The Reeler Mutation
315
5 Ionic Currents and the Basis for Intrinsic Firing Properties
316
51 Calcium Currents
317
53 Potassium Currents
318
6 Cable Properties and the Excitability of Dendrites
319
7 The Relevance of Intrinsic Physiological Properties
322
8 References
324
The Nature and Plasticity of Sensory Processing within Adult Rat Barrel Cortex
333
2 Objective Analysis of Receptive Fields
334
3 Laminar Organization of Receptive Fields
336
4 Unraveling the Origins of RF Components of Barrel Cells
339
5 The Dynamics of Sensory Processing
342
51 Sensory Relay in Layer IV
343
52 What Constitutes a Functional Column?
345
53 Intrinsic Circuitry for RF Construction
349
54 RF Organization in Conscious Rats
351
6 The Functional Significance of RF OverlapA Hypothesis
352
7 ExperienceDependent Plasticity in Adult Barrel Cortex
353
8 The Role of NMDA and NonNMDA Receptors in Barrel Cortex
358
82 NMDA and NonNMDA Receptors and Neocortical Plasticity
364
9 Synthesis and Speculations
365
92 The Meaning of Neocortical Sensory Maps
367
10 References
368
Neurotransmitter Receptors in Developing Barrel Cortex
375
2 Possible Roles for Neurotransmitter Receptors in Ontogeny
376
23 Relationship between Neurotransmitter and Receptor Development
377
4 Receptor Localization in Developing Barrel Cortex
379
42 GABA
387
43 Glutamate
389
44 Serotonin
390
45 Norepinephrine
391
5 Receptor Alterations in Developmental Plasticity
394
Pharmacological Manipulations
396
8 Overview and Hypotheses
399
82 Roles for Neurotransmitter Receptors in Developing Barrel Cortex
400
9 Methods and Approaches for Future Research
402
10 References
403
The Role of Acetylcholine in Barrel Cortex
411
2 Distribution of ACh and AChE in Barrel Cortex
412
22 Developing Animals
415
3 Barrel Cortex as a Model for Analysis of ACh Activity
416
31 Effect of ACh Depletion on Functional Activity in Barrel Cortex
418
32 Effect of Neonatal ACh Depletion on Barrels
421
4 The Role of ACh in Tactile Discrimination Involving Whiskers
424
5 Potential ACh Replacement Strategies
426
6 References
430
Index
435
Copyright

Common terms and phrases

Bibliographic information