Change Processes in Organizations
The report is a theoretically oriented review of the literature on organizational change. Several propositions growing out of open systems theory are identified and then tested against the empirical literature on steady and changing states of systems. Change processes are examined at the individual, group, and organizational levels of analysis. An effort is made to specify propositions that apply across all levels of analysis. The implications of the literature and theory for those who wish to bring about change are given in propositional form. (Author).
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Alderfer Applied Behavioral Science applied behavioral scientists Argyris associated attitudes authoritarian authoritarian personality boundary and relationship change programs closed systems creative person custodial dogmatism effectiveness employees experience experimental control external boundaries external conditions external environment feedback Gordon Allport greater group boundaries growth needs Hackman human relationships identified immate improved incentive increase individual level initial inmates innovative input institutions interaction intergroup relations internal and external internal openness interpersonal intervention job enlargement job enrichment Kurt Lewin Lawler less level of analysis mutual relationships negative non-mutual relationships open systems theory organization organizational change participative performance permeable boundaries planned change positive primary prisoner's dilemma problems production propositions Psychology psychotherapy reported roles Scanlon Plan sensory deprivation settings Sherif showed social social psychology staff stimulation strong permeable studies task Tavistock Tavistock Institute tion tive treatment oriented Vicos Weldon Whyte Yale University York