Changeable and Reconfigurable Manufacturing Systems

Front Cover
Hoda ElMaraghy
Springer Science & Business Media, Nov 23, 2008 - Technology & Engineering - 406 pages
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Change, in products and systems, has become a constant in manufacturing. Changeable and Reconfigurable Manufacturing Systems discusses many key strategies for success in this environment. Changes can most often be anticipated but some go beyond the design range. This requires providing innovative change enablers and adaptation mechanisms.

Changeable and Reconfigurable Manufacturing Systems presents the new concept of Changeability as an umbrella framework that encompasses many paradigms such as agility, adaptability, flexibility and reconfigurability. The book provides the definitions and classification of key terms in this new field, and emphasizes the required physical/hard and logical/soft change enablers.

Over 22 chapters, the book presents cutting edge technologies, the latest thinking and research results, as well as future directions to help manufacturers stay competitive. It contains original contributions and results from senior international experts, experienced practitioners and accomplished researchers in the field of manufacturing, together with industrial applications. Changeable and Reconfigurable Manufacturing Systems serves as a comprehensive reference and textbook for industrial professionals, managers, engineers, specialists, researchers and academics in manufacturing, industrial and mechanical engineering; and general readers who are interested to learn about the new and emerging manufacturing paradigms and their potential impact on the workplace and future jobs.

 

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Contents

Changeability An Introduction
3
12 Evolution of Factories
7
13 Deriving the Objects of Changeability
8
14 Elements of Changeable Manufacturing
10
15 Factory Levels
11
16 Changeability Classes
12
17 Changeability Objectives
13
171 Manufacturing Level
14
1133 Building Blocks of PPC Changeability
204
1141 Functional Models
205
1142 Planning and Control Methods
206
1143 Data Models
207
1144 Data Interfaces
208
115 Change Process in PPC
209
116 Summary and Further Research
210
References
211

173 Factory Level
15
181 Manufacturing Level
16
182 Assembly Level
17
184 Reconfigurable Process Planning Level
18
185 Production Planning and Control Level
19
110 Conclusion
22
References
23
Changing and Evolving Products and Systems Models and Enablers
25
21 Introduction and Motivation
26
22 The Hierarchy of Parts and Products Variants
27
23 Evolving and Dynamic Parts and Products Families
32
24 Modeling Products Evolution A Biological Analogy
34
25 Design of Assembly Systems for Delayed Differentiation of Changing and Evolving Products
35
26 Process Planning The Link Between Varying Products and their Manufacturing Systems
37
262 Process Plans Changeability
38
263 Reconfiguring Process Plans RPP and Its Significance
40
264 Process Planning for Reconfigurable Machines
41
27 Discussion and Conclusions
42
References
44
Focused Flexibility in Production Systems
47
311 Focused Flexibility Manufacturing Systems FFMSs
48
32 Literature Review
50
33 Proposal of an Ontology on Flexibility
51
34 Analysis of Real Systems
55
342 Riello Sistemi Case Study
58
35 Using the Ontology on Flexibility to Support System Design
60
36 Conclusions and Future Developments
63
References
64
Part II Physical Enablers
67
Control of Reconfigurable Machine Tools
71
411 Basic Idea for Reconfigurable Machine Tools and Systems
72
42 State of the Art
75
43 Configurable and Reconfigurable Machine Tools
77
432 Conception of a Reconfigurable Machine Tool
80
44 Field Bus Systems Requirements
81
45 Configurable Control Systems
83
451 MiddleWare
84
452 Configuration
85
454 Configuration Procedure
87
455 Development of a Control Configuration Tool
90
46 SelfAdapting Control System for RMS
91
462 Extensions of SelfAdapting Control Systems
92
of the SelfAdaptable Control System
96
47 Summary and Conclusions
98
References
99
Reconfigurable Machine Tools for a Flexible Manufacturing System
101
52 Reconfigurable Machine Tools Development
102
53 Application Examples
107
54 Summary
109
Reconfigurable Machine Tools and Equipment
110
62 Flexibility Requirements
113
63 Reconfigurable MultiTechnology Machine Tool RMM
116
632 Modules
117
633 System Interfaces
121
634 Expert Tool for System Configuration
122
64 Summary
124
Changeable and Reconfigurable Assembly Systems
127
72 Flexible Manual Assembly Systems
129
721 Single Station Assembly with SetWise Assembly Flow
130
722 Single Station Assembly According to the OnePieceFlow Principle
131
723 MultiStation Assembly According to the OnePieceFlow Principle
132
73 Flexible Automated Systems
134
74 Hybrid Assembly Systems
136
743 Analysis of the Results for Automated and Hybrid Assemblies
140
75 Conclusion
141
Logical Enablers
143
Unified Dynamic and Control Models for Reconfigurable Robots
147
811 Description of a Robot Model
148
813 Reconfigurable Kinematic and Dynamic Modules
149
82 Design of Reconfigurable Control Platform RCP
152
83 Design of Reconfigurable Robot Platform RRP
157
84 Reverse Modeling of Reconfigurable Robot MetaModel
158
85 Conclusions
159
References
160
Reconfigurable Control of Constrained Flexible Joint Robots Interacting with Dynamic and Changeable Environment
162
92 Dynamic Model of Flexible Joint Robot in Contact with Different Environment
166
93 Decoupled Controller Design
167
932 Contact with Stiff Environment
169
94 Reconfigurable Control Scheme
171
95 Simulation Study
172
References
176
Reconfiguring Process Plans A New Approach to Minimize Change
179
101 Introduction
180
102 Related Work
181
103 Conceptual Basis
183
104 Mathematical Modeling and Programming
184
105 A New Criterion in Process Planning
186
106 Computational Time Complexity
187
1072 Reconfigurable Process Planning for Machining of a Front Engine Cover Part Family
190
1073 Concluding Remarks
192
References
193
Adaptive Production Planning and Control Elements and Enablers of Changeability
196
112 The PPC Framework
199
1121 Design Aspects of a SocioTechnical PPC System
200
1122 PPC Design Matrix
201
113 Changeability of PPC Tools
202
1131 Change Elements of PPC
203
Component Oriented Design of ChangeReady MPC Systems
213
122 Related Review
215
123 The New MPC System Characteristics
216
1231 ComponentBased Software Engineering CBSE
218
1232 ComponentOriented Versus ObjectOriented Programming
219
1242 ChangeReady MPC Framework
220
125 Discussion and Conclusions
224
References
225
Dynamic Capacity Planning and Modeling Its Complexity
227
1312 Complexity vs Uncertainty
228
1313 Complexity in Dynamic Capacity Planning
229
133 System Dynamic Model for MultiStage Production
231
1332 Model Nomenclature
232
1333 Mathematical Model
233
134 Numerical Simulation of Industrial Case Study
236
1343 Numerical Simulation Results
238
135 Conclusions
243
References
244
Managing and Justifying Change
247
Design for Changeability
249
141 Production Trends in HighWage Countries
252
142 Introduction of a Target System for Complex Production Systems
253
1422 Target System for Complex Production Systems
254
1423 Differentiation Between Complicated Systems and Complex Systems
256
143 Approach to Mastering Complexity in Production Systems
257
1432 ObjectOriented Management of Production Systems
258
144 Case Studies
261
1441 A ObjectOriented Production Design
262
1442 B ReleaseEngineering in the Automotive Industry
263
145 Summary
265
References
266
Changeability Effect on Manufacturing Systems Design
267
152 Synthesis of Manufacturing Systems
268
1522 Effect of Changeability Enablers on the Factory Level Design
271
1523 Changeability Effect on Machine Level Design
273
1524 Product Design Directions
274
153 Changeability Integration into the Design Process
276
1532 Biological EvolutionCoEvolution Analogy
278
154 Final Remarks
279
References
280
Managing Change and Reconfigurations of CNC Machine Tools
285
1611 Reconfiguration Considerations
287
162 The Change or Reconfiguration Management Methodology
289
163 Pneumatic Flow Control Valve Case Study
294
164 Summary and Conclusions
299
References
300
Economic and Strategic Justification of Changeable Reconfigurable and Flexible Manufacturing
302
172 Literature Review
304
173 Proposed RMS Justification Model
305
1731 Financial Objective
308
1732 System Complexity
309
1733 System Responsiveness
310
174 Illustrative Example
313
1741 Comparison of Reconfigurable and Flexible Scenarios over the System Life Cycle
315
1742 FMS and RMS Comparison Through LifeCycle Simulation
317
175 Conclusions
318
References
319
Quality and Maintainability Frameworks for Changeable and Reconfigurable Manufacturing
321
181 Introduction
322
183 Changeable Manufacturing and Quality
325
184 Effect of Reconfigurable Manufacturing System Design on Quality
328
185 The Changeability and Maintainability Relationship
330
186 Conclusion
333
References
334
Maintenance Strategies for Changeable Manufacturing
337
192 Recent Developments
338
1931 Model of Integration Between Intelligent Manufacturing Control System and Intelligent Maintenance System
339
1932 Fuzzy Logic Controller I and II FLC I and II
341
1933 Fuzzy Maintenance and Decision Making Grid
344
194 Case Study
348
195 Conclusions and Future Research
349
References
350
Future Directions
352
The Cognitive Factory
353
201 Introduction
356
203 Cognitive Technical Systems
359
204 The Cognitive Factory
360
2042 Core Aspects to Achieve the Cognitive Factory
362
205 Summary and Outlook
368
References
369
Migration Manufacturing A New Concept for Automotive Body Production
373
212 Development of the Basic Concept
376
213 Operating Phases of the Migration Concept
380
214 Practical Evaluation and Implementation
382
215 Conclusion and Outlook
385
References
387
Changeable Factory Buildings An Architectural View
389
2211 The Factory Planners View
390
MultiUser Changeable and Scalable Buildings
392
222 Performance and Constituent Components of Factory Buildings
394
2222 Building Components
395
223 Synergetic Planning of Processes Logistics and Buildings
397
224 Industrial Example of a Transformable Factory
398
225 Conclusion
400
References
401
Index
403
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About the author (2008)

Hoda A. ElMaraghy, Ph.D., P.Eng., is currently Canada Research Chair in Manufacturing Systems, Professor of Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering and Director of the Intelligent Manufacturing Systems (IMS) Centre at the University of Windsor. She is a Fellow of the Canadian Society of Mechanical Engineers (CSME), Fellow of the Society of Manufacturing Engineers (SME), Fellow of the International Academy for Production Engineering (CIRP), Member of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) and an International Director for the American Society for Manufacturing Engineers. Her teaching and research interests are in manufacturing systems design, modeling, flexibility, reconfiguration, control, quality, inspection, assembly, process planning and robotics. Prof. ElMaraghy is one of the pioneering researchers who contributed to the introduction of technologies such as flexible manufacturing and reconfigurable manufacturing, as well as changeable manufacturing. She has acted as a consultant to industry internationally where the results of her research were used to improve the productivity and competitiveness of many manufacturers.

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