Chaplains of the East India Company, 1601-1858
The East India Company's merchants were called Adventurers because they ventured their money in the risky markets of the Spice Islands and the fabulously wealthy Mughal Empire. In another sense also, the Company's entire 250 years were an adventure, exciting and dangerous, and creating over time, by violence and corruption, an empire. Contrary to the common view, the Company always claimed a Christian identity, hence the chaplains, on their voyages and in their trading 'factories' and garrisons, to guard the morals and morale of their operations. This the chaplains did with varying conviction and success. Forbear of the multinational of today, the Company continues to fascinate, attracting a vast amount of study worldwide as an economic and political phenomenon, an instrument of development, patron of art, and locus of attention in the new-imperial and postcolonial literature. Virtually unnoticed hitherto alongside the seafarers, merchant-adventurers, soldiers and imperialists, and their Indian collaborators, was a succession of educated, mostly young men with a tricky assignment and a distinct angle on all that took place: the chaplains. >
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Anglican appointed arrived Bantam baptism Bengal Bishop Black Town blessing Bombay Briercliffe British Buchanan burial Calcutta Cawnpore century chaplaincy chaplains Chapter Christian Church Church of England Company chaplains Company’s conﬂict Council Court minutes died divine early East India Company England English Eurasian evangelical factory Factory records ﬁnal ﬁnd ﬁrst ﬁve Fort St David Fort St George garrison Georgina God’s Gospel Governor Gray Henry Hyde Iames Ianuary Iapan Iennings Indies inﬂuence Iohn Iohnson later letter live London Lord Lucknow Lutheran Madras Master merchants Middleton military minister ministry mission missionary Mughal natives ofﬁce ofﬁcers ofﬁcial Ovington Oxford parish Patrick Copland period pious Polehampton poor Portuguese prayers preached preacher Presidency cities President reﬂected religion religious reported sent sermon servants served ships signiﬁcant soldiers SPCK speciﬁc St George St ohn’s Streynsham Master subsequent Sunday Surat Thomas trade Tranquebar voyage widow wife William worship wrote