Charlemagne, Muhammad, and the Arab Roots of Capitalism
Gene W. Heck explores the role of Islam in precipitating Europe's twelfth century commercial renaissance. Determining that Europe's medieval feudal interregnum was largely caused by indigenous governmental business regulation and not by shifts in international trade patterns, he demonstrates how Islamic economic precepts provided the ideological rationales that empoweredmedieval Europe to escape its three-centuries-long experiment in "Dark Age economics"- in the process, providing the West with its archetypic tools of capitalism.
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Medieval Christian Europe in Stasis
The MuslimsMedieval Trade Explosion
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al-Basrah al-Dimashql al-Fustat al-Istakhri al-Jahiz Al-Maqrizl al-Mascudl al-Muqaddasi 1906 al-Muqaddasl Al-Sarakhsl Al-Shaybanl Allah Arab Arabian Peninsula Ayah Baghdad cA.cA cAbbasid Cahen Cairo caliph capital Carolingian century Charlemagne Christian Europe Church cited coins commenda commercial commodities contemporary contract corporate Crusades currency Ddr al-Isldm developments dinars dirhams early East economic Egypt Egyptian Empire Europe's European exchange export Fatimid Geniza documents Genoese gold historian Ibn cAbd al-Hakam Ibn Hawqal Ibn Hawqal 1872 Ibn Khaldun Ibn Khurradadhbih 1889 Ibn Rustah Ibn Rustah 1892 idem industrial investment investor Khazars Kitdb LaTouche Levant likewise Makkah marketplace medieval medieval Arabic medieval Muslims Mediterranean mercantile merchandise merchants Middle Ages monetary muddrabah Muhammad Muslim Muslim raid ongoing partnership passim Pirenne port pounds prime production profit motive R.S. Lopez Radhanite region related in S.D. Roman routes S.D. Goitein sector ships sources trade transactions Udovitch Umayyad usury West Western Europe