Chemical Changes in Food during Processing

Front Cover
Thomas Richardson, John W. Finley
Springer Science & Business Media, Mar 31, 1986 - Technology & Engineering - 520 pages
This volume results from the Eighth Basic Symposium held by the Institute of Food Technologists in Anaheim, California on June 8-9, 1984. The theme of the symposium was "Chemical Changes in Food during Processing." The speakers included a mix of individuals from academic institu tions, governmental agencies, and the food industry. Twenty speakers discussed topics ranging from the basic chemistry relating to food constituents to the more applied aspects of chemical changes in food components during food processing. It was the intent of the organizers to bring together a group of speakers who could address the chemistry of changes in food compo nents during processing from a mechanistic point of view. As a con sequence, the proceedings of this symposium emphasize the basic chemistry of changes in food constituents from a generic perspective which is intended to provide the reader with a background to address more specific problems that may arise.
 

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Contents

Chemical Changes in Food during Processing An Overview
1
CHEMICAL CHANGES DURING PROCESSING
3
MEANS OF CONTROLLING CHEMICAL REACTIONS IN FOODS DURING PROCESSING AND HANDLING
10
REFERENCES
13
Chemistry of Reactive Oxygen Species
17
REACTIVE SPECIES
18
PHOTOSENSITIZED OXIDATIONS
21
METHODS OF CHARACTERIZING REACTIVE INTERMEDIATES
24
THIOL PROTEINASES
230
ACID PROTEINASES
240
CONCLUSIONS
251
Chemical Reactions of Proteins
255
GENERAL CHEMISTRY OF REACTIONS
256
SOME TYPICAL REACTIONS
265
SOME DETERIORATIVE REACTIONS OF PRACTICAL IMPORTANCE
269
POSSIBLE UNHEALTHFUL DETERIORATIVE PRODUCTS
279

SUMMARY
30
MetalCatalyzed Reactions of Organic Compounds
33
IONIC REACTIONS PROMOTED BY METAL IONS
34
METALCATALYZED OXIDATION OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
45
REFERENCES
58
Free Radical Chemistry of Natural Products
63
PEROXYL RADICALS
65
ALKOXYL RADICALS
67
SUPEROXIDE AND HYDROPEROXYL RADICALS
68
HYDROXYL RADICAL
69
REFERENCES
71
Mechanism of Fatty Acid and Phospholipid Autoxidation
73
REFERENCES
78
Thermal and Radiolytic Decomposition of Lipids
79
EXTENT OF DECOMPOSITION
80
RADIOLYTIC REACTIONS
81
THERMOLYTIC REACTIONS
90
THERMAL OXIDATIVE REACTIONS
93
COMPARISON OF PRODUCT PATTERNS
98
REFERENCES
103
Antioxidants
107
EXPERIMENTAL TECHNIQUES
108
GENERATION OF PEROXY RADICALS
111
GENERATION OF OXIDIZING RADICALS
112
REACTIVITIES OF PEROXY RADICALS
113
REACTIVITIES OF ANTIOXIDANTS
114
SPECTRAL PROPERTIES
115
STRUCTUREREACTIVITY RELATIONSHIPS FOR ANTIOXIDANTS
116
CONCLUSIONS
117
Mechanisms of Oxidoreductases Important in Food Component Modification
121
POLYPHENOL OXIDASE
123
LIPOXYGENASE
130
PEROXIDASE AND CATALASE
136
XANTHINE OXIDASE XANTHINE DEHYDROGENASE AND ALDEHYDE OXIDASE
142
GLUCOSE OXIDASE
154
ALCOHOL DEHYDROGENASE AND ALDEHYDE DEHYDROGENASE
162
REFERENCES
170
Oxidation of Lipids in Biological Tissue and Its Significance
177
FORMATION OF HYDROPEROXIDES
180
POTENTIAL CHEMICAL MODELS FOR BIOCHEMICAL CONVERSION OF HYDROPEROXIDES
183
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE CASCADE
192
REFERENCES
198
OxidationInduced Changes in Foods
205
LIPID OXIDATION IN PROCESSED PEANUTS
206
QUALITY OF FRYING FATS FOR FAST FOOD SERVICES
210
OXIDATIVE CROSSLINKING OF POLYPHENOLICS IN RICE
214
REFERENCES
216
Controlling Acyl Transfer Reactions of Hydrolases to Alter Food Constituents
219
ACYL TRANSFER
220
LIPASES
221
REFERENCES
283
Some Aspects of the Chemistry of Nonenzymatic Browning The Maillard Reaction
289
SUGARAMINE INTERACTIONS
290
MAILLARD POLYMER FORMATION
294
REFERENCES
302
Principal Changes in Starches during Food Processing
305
GELATINIZATION
307
DEGRADATION
316
RETROGRADATION
317
BREAD STALING
319
REFERENCES
323
Chemical Changes in Flavor Components during Processing
327
ENZYMATICALLY ANDOR MICROBIALLY PRODUCED COMPOUNDS
328
THERMAL CHANGES
333
REFERENCES
343
Changes in Pectin and Cellulose during Processing
347
SUGAR COMPOSITION SIZE AND SHAPE OF PECTIN MOLECULES
349
PECTIN METHYLATION
354
PECTIN IONIZATION AND ION BINDING
356
PECTIN STRUCTURE IN CELL WALLS
360
RECENT STUDIES OF PECTIC ENZYMES
361
ROLE OF PECTIN IN FRUIT AND VEGETABLE TEXTURE
363
CELLULOSE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION
366
REFERENCES
368
Chemical Changes of Vitamins during Food Processing
373
VITAMIN DEGRADATION REACTIONS
374
CONVERSION TO PRODUCTS EXHIBITING REDUCED BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY
393
PROCESSING EFFECTS ON VITAMIN BIOAVAILABILITY
397
CONCLUSIONS
401
REFERENCES
402
Chemical Changes in Natural Food Pigments
409
CAROTENOIDS
410
CHLOROPHYLL
418
HEME PIGMENTS
423
ANTHOCYANINS
425
BETALAINS
433
REFERENCES
437
Environmental Effects on Protein Quality
443
INFLUENCE OF HEAT ON PROTEINS
444
NONENZYMATIC BROWNING
456
PHOTOOXIDATION REACTIONS OF PROTEINS
459
INTERACTION OF PROTEIN WITH OXIDIZING LIPIDS
464
INFLUENCE OF ALKALINE CONDITIONS ON PROTEIN
468
CONCLUSIONS
476
Environmental Effects on Chemical Changes in Foods
483
ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS ON RATES OF CHEMICAL REACTION
485
OPTIMIZATION OF FOOD PROCESSES ON THE BASIS OF KINETIC MODELS RELATING PROCESS VARIABLE TO CHEMICAL CHANGES
498
REFERENCES
499
Index
503
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