Chemistry in Non-Aqueous Solvents

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Springer Science & Business Media, Apr 30, 1974 - Science - 285 pages
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Arising no doubt from its pre-eminence as a natural liquid, water has always been considered by chemists as the original solvent in which very varied chemical reactions can take place, both for preparational and for analytical purposes. This explains the very long-standing interest shown in the study of aqueous solutions. In this con nection, it must be stressed that the theory of Arrhenius and Ostwald (1887-1894) on electrolytic dissociation, was originally devised solely for solutions in water and that the first true concept of acidity resulting from this is linked to the use of this solvent. The more recent development of numerous physico-chemical measurement methods has made possible an increase of knowledge in this area up to an extremely advanced degree of systematization. Thus today we have available both a very large amount of experimental data, together with very refined methods of deduction and of quantitative treatment of chemical reactions in solution which enable us to make the fullest use of this data. Nevertheless, . it appears quite evident at present that there are numerous chemical processes which cannot take place in water, and that its use as a solvent imposes 2 INTRODUCTION limitations. In order to overcome these limitations, it was natural that interest should be attracted to solvents other than water and that the new possibilities thus opened up should be explored.
 

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Contents

SOLVENTS AND SOLUTES
9
I2 Solvation of Substances within a Molecular Solvent
22
I3 Ionic Associations Ionpairs in Molecular Solvents of Low Dielectric Constant
30
I4 State of Substances Dissolved in an Ionized Solvent Molten Salt
42
I5 Presentation of Reactions in Solution
54
ACIDITY AND PROTOLYSIS PHENOMENA
59
II1 Acidity in a Molecular Solvent of High Dielectric Constant
67
II2 Acidity of Acceptors of the Anion given up by an Amphiprotic Solvent
98
OTHER ION EXCHANGE SYSTEMS WITH PARTICIPATION OF SOLVENT
130
III2 Examples of Solvoacidity in Aprotonic Solvents
139
OXIDATIONREDUCTION PHENOMENA
157
IV1 Solvent Intervention in OxidationReduction Phenomena
165
IV2 Influence of Acidity on OxidationReduction Phenomena
173
CORRELATION BETWEEN PROPERTIES IN DIFFERENT SOLVENTS
199
V2 Correlation Between AcidBase Properties in Different Solvents
249
V3 Correlation Between Other Properties
270

II3 Protolysis in Molecular Solvents of Low Dielectric Constant
107
II4 Protolysis in Ionized Solvents Molten Salts
120

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Page 279 - Liquid Displacement Test Cell for Dielectric Constant ana Dissipation Factor up to 100 Me," presented at Conference on Electrical Insulation (NRC), October, 1959, and reviewed in Insulation, INULA, November, 1959, p. 26. (10) Maryott, AA, and Smith, ER, 'Table of Dielectric Constants of Pure Liquids," NBS Circular No. 514, 1951. (11) Hartshorn, L., Parry, JVL, and Essen, L., 'The Measurement of the Dielectric Constant of Standard Liquids," Proceedings, PPSBA, Physical Soc. (London), Vol 68B, July,...
Page 283 - Luder, WF and Zuffanti, S. 1946. The Electronic Theory of Acids and Bases.
Page 280 - Chariot, G. and Tremillon, B., 1963, Les reactions chimiques dans les solvants et les selsfondus, Gauthier-Villars, p.
Page 280 - Blander, M., 1964, Molten Salt Chemistry, New York, Interscience, chap. 3. Blander, M., Braunstein, J., 1959-1961, /. Phys.

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