Chemistry of the Textiles Industry

Front Cover
C. Carr
Springer Science & Business Media, May 31, 1995 - Science - 361 pages
1 Review
The manufacture and processing of textiles is a complex and essential industry requiring many diverse skills to ensure profitability. New products are continually being developed, and reflect the energy and innovation of those working in the field. This book focuses on the technological aspects of the chemical processing oftextiles, and on the modifications necessary for specific work environments. Coverage ranges from fibre structure and its relationship to tensile properties, textile aesthetics, comfort physiology, and end-use performance, through to the effect of domestic processing by the consumer on the textile product. The industry is constantly under environmental pressure, and the book examines the nature of environmental control and the development of alternative technology to produce less environmental impact. In order to provide a balanced view of the current situation, authors have been drawn from academia, research institutes and industry to produce a text that will be useful to both industrial readers and university students. In conclusion I would like to thank the authors for their dedication and their contributions.
 

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Contents

Introduction The structure of fibres
1
12 Classification of textile fibres
2
regenerated cellulose and its derivatives
9
123 Synthetic polymer fibres
10
124 Other types of fibre
15
132 Comments on fibre macrostructure
34
14 Relationship of structure to tensile properties
36
142 Examples
39
References
209
Coated and laminated fabrics
210
712 General usage
211
722 Staple fibre fabrics
212
73 Techniques for coating fabrics
213
733 Control parameters in coating
215
74 Chemistry of coating polymers
217
743 Production of complex polymers
218

Acknowledgement
43
The whitening of textiles
46
22 Natural and synthetic fibers
47
221 Cellulosics
48
222 Natural polyamides
50
223 Synthetics
53
224 Bleaching of fiber blends
54
231 Chlorinecontaining oxidants
56
232 Inorganic peroxygen bleaches
57
233 Organic peroxygen bleaches
58
234 Reducing bleaches
59
235 Photosensitizing bleaches
61
236 Fluorescent whitening agents
62
24 Energy and the environment
64
Survey of bleaching protocols
67
References
97
Fireretardant textiles
102
32 The combustion process
103
331 Terminology and standards
104
34 Mammabilit v of materials
106
35 Which materials are best?
107
352 Flammability of polypropylene
108
356 Durability
109
358 Barrierlayer fireretardant structures
110
363 The role of Lewis acids in promoting dehydration
112
364 Vapourphase fireretardant action
113
365 Metal oxides and salts as flame retardants
114
372 Intrinsically fireretardant materials
115
373 Commercial fireretardant treatments for cotton
116
374 Finishes for wool
120
375 Finishes for polyestercotton
121
38 Premature failure of flame retardancy
122
384 Steam sterilization
123
References
124
Physical and chemical effects of domestic laundering processes
125
42 Domestic laundry processes Effects of water mechanical action and tumble drying
127
422 Physical effects of water temperature and mechanical action on textile fibres
128
423 Physical effects of washing on fibres and fabrics
131
43 Chemical effects of fabric washing product ingredients on textile fibres
145
432 Alkalinity
148
433 Anionic nonionic and cationic surfactants
150
434 Bleaching systems
152
435 Enzymes and their effects on textile fibres
157
436 Other ingredients
161
44 Effects of wash process and product formulation variables on dyed fabrics
165
443 Dye desorption and crossstaining
166
Acknowledgement
171
Easy care
173
52 Ureaformaldehyde resins
175
54 Melamine resins
177
56 The problem of fishy odour in resintreated fabrics
178
57 Reactanttype products
180
58 Formulations for use of propylene ureaformaldehyde resin
182
59 Solids of resins
184
Registered trademarks
186
Machinewashable knitwear Production routes
187
62 Garment treatments
189
622 Scouring and milling procedures for woollen spun knitwear
191
623 Scouring and anticockle procedures for worsted spun knitwear
192
624 Garment shrinkresist treatments for knitwear
196
625 Polymeronly treatments
201
63 Yarn treatments
202
64 Continuous treatments
203
65 Environmental considerations
206
66 Conclusion
208
745 Coating formulations
219
746 Polyurethane properties
221
751 Natural rubber
222
752 Polychloroprene rubbers neoprene
224
753 Polyisobutylene rubbers butyl
225
755 Nitrile rubbers
227
76 Coating polymers and elastomers
228
762 Polyacrylate elastomers
229
763 Silicone elastomers
231
764 Polyitetrafluoroethylene PTFE
232
766 Chlorinated and chlorosulphonated polyethylenes
234
771 Physiological aspects
235
772 Types of waterproofvapour permeable fabrics
236
773 Microporous coatings and films poromerics
237
774 Hydrophilic coatings and films
240
775 Relative performance of breathable barrier fabrics
243
710 Enduse applications for polymercoated fabrics
246
References
247
Scouring enzymes and softeners
249
82 Aqueous scouring processes
250
821 The surfactant molecule
251
822 The nature of surface activity
253
823 Critical micelle concentration CMC
256
824 Scouring of textile substrates
257
825 Choosing the surfactant for a fibre type
259
83 Enzymes
260
832 Enzymes in textile processing
262
834 Biopolishing and stonewashing of cotton
263
835 Wool processing
266
84 Softeners
267
842 Softener types
269
843 Mechanical measurement of fabric properties
273
85 Mercerisation
275
The colouring of textiles
276
92 The physical chemistry of coloration
286
92 1 Binding forces
287
922 Dyeing equilibria and kinetics
291
93 Classes of colorants and their applications
299
931 Acid dyes
300
932 Direct cotton dyes
304
933 Basic dyes
307
934 Reactive dyes
308
935 Disperse dyes
317
936 Vat dyes
320
937 Sulphur dyes
323
938 Azoic dyes
325
939 Pigments
326
94 Textile printing
328
References
331
General bibliography
332
The environmental impact of the textiles industry
333
1021 The immediate environment
334
1022 The local environment
335
1025 The Gaia Hypothesis
336
1026 Environmental complexity
337
1032 Production of waste
339
1033 Air pollution
345
104 Approaching the problem
347
1042 Lifecycle analysis
348
1043 The action programme
350
1044 Action areas
351
105 Conclusionthe way forward
353
References
354
Index
355
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