China: Air, Land, and Water : Environmental Priorities for a New Millennium, Volume 1
World Bank Publications, 2001 - Political Science - 149 pages
'China: Air, Land, and Water' is a further chapter in the successful and creative dialogue between the World Bank and the People's Republic of China. It focuses on how to promote both China's economic growth while protecting its environment. The objectives of this report include reassessing the environmental situation in China and using this analysis to plan a strategy for improving environmental quality in the years ahead. Includes a CD-ROM with full text plus additional background research and data.
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10th FYP acid agencies agenda agricultural air quality ambient and/or approach assessment Beijing biodiversity capacity catchments challenge China Chinese cities coal consumption countries cultivated land declined desertification discharge donors ecological economic effects emissions energy enterprises envi environment environmental issues environmental management Environmental Protection EPBs erosion eutrophication fuels government's grassland grassland management groundwater growth hectares Huai Huai River impact improve increased indoor air pollution industrial pollution Inner Mongolia institutions investments land degradation levels livestock Loess Plateau major ment mental management million hectares Ministry monitoring natural resources management nature reserves nonpoint particularly particulate percent pesticide planning policies pollution control population potential poverty priority problems production provinces reduce reform regions regulations regulatory ronmental rural sector SEPA SEPA's significant significantly sources standards strategy sustainable development Table technical timber forest tion Trends urban environmental wastewater treatment water pollution water quality World Bank Xinjiang
Page xx - ... government announced that it would spend US$85 billion in an environmental clean-up campaign over the next ten years. Annex 1 of this report summarises a number of environmental protection laws and regulations that China has put in place so far. As noted in the above-cited World Bank report, China's repertoire of environmental laws, regulations and standards is quite comprehensive and has been continuously updated and expanded to improve effectiveness and cover emerging issues. But its performance...
Page 62 - ... development of this industry, and opening the sector to foreign investors can provide much needed pollution control and treatment equipment and provide additional employment in the Chinese economy.43 Pressures and trends in agriculture The increasing use of fertilisers has been a major factor in the increase in grain and food consumption in China over the last 50 years. Total fertiliser consumption increased by more than 500 per cent between 1980 and 1998, by which time it amounted to about 41...
Page 109 - ISO 14000 certification was initiated by SEPA's Office of Environmental Management Systems. Subsequently, a Steering Committee for Environmental Management System Certification was established under the State Council to provide accreditation services for certification bodies and auditors. Several environmental management and consulting centres have been established to conduct ISO 14000 certification, including the Environmental Management Committee of China's Registration Board for Auditors.
Page 35 - ... (Natural Forest Protection Programme - NFPP) was launched to improve natural forest management, covering approximately 95 million hectares of stateowned forests in 1 7 provinces. Finally, a new land-use law was enacted to promote more efficient use of land and increased afforestation.33 Biodiversity China has one of the greatest ranges of ecological diversity of any country in the world, and probably contains around 10 per cent of all species living on earth. It has an especially high number...
Page 57 - ... Hydropower of the Ministry of Water Resources, indicate that the balance between irrigation and other consumptive uses will continue to change in the future. Water use for irrigation purposes is projected to decline from current levels of approximately 75 per cent of total consumption to 50 per cent in 2050. Consumption for urban and industrial purposes will increase significantly. Both of these forms of consumption lead to emissions of polluted water, so it is likely that water pollution pressures...
Page xvi - WTO commitments, the State Development Planning Commission, the State Economic and Trade Commission and the Ministry of...
Page xvi - The Center for Chinese Agricultural Policy (CCAP) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS).
Page 81 - ... 1998. Nearly all of the increase occurred in the 32 largest cities. Ambient levels of other pollutants such as carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3) and lead (Pb) are not systematically controlled. Indoor air pollution is also a serious problem as about 80 per cent of China's people still use solid fuel, such as coal, firewood and crop stalks for cooking and space heating. Burning this fuel in inadequately ventilated households leads to serious indoor air pollution. Figure 17.4. Concentrations of...