Chirality in Liquid Crystals
Objects that differ from their mirror images, such as the left and right hands, play an important role in physics at all lengths scales, from elementary particles to macroscopic systems. The handedness, or chirality, of molecules in liquid crystals has a remarkable influence on the macroscopic physical properties of these systems, including the appearance of new phases. Indeed, the majority of optical applications of liquid crystals is due to chiral structures, namely the thermochromic effect of cholesteric liquid crystals, the optical activity in twisted nematic liquid crystal displays, and the ferroelectric and antiferroelectric switching of smectic liquid crystals.
This book describes the main aspects of chirality in liquid crystals, and points out some of the open questions of current research. The chapters, each by an expert in the field, review the highlights of the important topics and representative questions in the field of chiral liquid crystals.
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Classroom Experiments with Chiral Liquid Crystals
From a Chiral Molecule to a Chiral Anisotropic Phase
Chemical Structures and Polymorphism
Defects and Topology
Antiferroelectric and Ferrielectric
Twist Grain Boundary Phases
Columnar Liquid Crystals
Some Aspects of Polyemer Dispersed and Polymer Stabilized
Chirality in Liquid Crystal Elastomers
Phase Chirality of Micellar Lyotropic Liquid Crystals
Traveling Phase Boundaries with the Broken Symmetries of Life
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achiral alignment amphiphilic anchoring anisotropy antiferroelectric applied axis birefringence blue phases BPII BPIII cell Chem chiral dopant chiral liquid crystals chiral molecules chiral nematic cholesteric liquid crystals cholesteric phase CLCs coe˝cient columnar phases compounds con®guration Cryst de®ned defects deformation di¨erent di¨raction dielectric director eld disclinations display dopant droplets e¨ect elastic elastomers electric eld electro-optic enantiomer enantiomeric excess experimental ferroelectric free energy Fukuda helical structure helix Heppke inŻuence interaction isotropic isotropic phase lattice layer normal Lett lines lyotropic micelles mixture molecular nematic nematic liquid crystal nematic phase nonchiral nonlinear observed optical order parameter orientation parallel perpendicular phase diagram phase transition Phys pitch planar plane polymer network properties racemic rotation sample selective reŻection shown in Figure shows slab smectic smectic layer smectic-C phase spontaneous polarization Stegemeyer symmetry Takezoe temperature tensor texture TGB phases TGBA TGBC topological twist vector voltage wavelength