Chromosomal Alterations: Methods, Results and Importance in Human Health

Front Cover
GŁnter Obe, Vijayalaxmi
Springer Science & Business Media, Jun 2, 2007 - Science - 515 pages
0 Reviews

Cytogenetics is a very important research tool in basic and applied research. The uses of cytogenetics in human-population monitoring, in biological dosimetry in radiation accidents and in astronauts and as a predictive measure of cancer are topics discussed in this book. The book will help the reader to better understand cytogenetics and the intricacies of the methodology. The different methods of fluorescence in situ hybridization are discussed and the results achieved are presented. The book provides a comprehensive review of basic and applied aspects of cytogenetics and therefore will be of interest to all who are interested in chromosomes and their alterations by different types of mutagens, including chemical mutagens and ionizing and nonionizing radiation, with special reference to electromagnetic fields.

 

What people are saying - Write a review

We haven't found any reviews in the usual places.

Contents

References
253
In Vivo Rodent Micronucleus Assay
257
162 Historical Overview
259
163 The Rodent Micronucleus Assay for Evaluation of Chromosomal Aberration Induction of Agents
260
1631 Rodent Bone Marrow Micronucleus Assay
261
164 The Micronucleus Assay Using Tissues Other Than Bone Marrow
263
1642 Colon
264
1644 Testes
265

18 Mendelian Disorders Affecting Chromosome Integrity
14
182 PCC Syndrome
15
183 Further Syndromes Affecting Structural Maintenance of the Chromosome
16
References
17
DNA Lesions Induced by Ionizing Radiation
21
22 Energy Deposition by Ionizing Radiation
23
23 Direct and Indirect Effect
24
24 Cerenkov Radiation
25
27 Base Damage
27
28 SingleStrand Breaks
30
29 Double Lesions
31
210 DNADNA CrossLinks
34
214 DNA Damage by UVC and Ionizing Radiation a Comparison
35
References
36
Effects of Ultraviolet Radiation on DNA
39
32 Primary Photoproducts in DNA
42
33 Action Spectra
44
34 Reversal and Repair of Primary Photoproducts
46
35 Cytological Effects
47
352 Micronuclei
49
353 SisterChromatid Exchanges
50
36 Conclusions
51
Double Strand Break Repair Mechanisms in Mammalian Cells
54
42 NHEJ Reaction
56
422 Proteins Involved in NHEJ
58
43 DSB Repair by HRR
59
431 HRR Mechanisms
61
45 Fragile Sites Are Associated with DNA DSBs
62
46 Conclusions
63
Backup Pathways of Nonhomologous End Joining May Have a Dominant Role in the Formation of Chromosome Aberrations
67
52 Pathways of DSB Repair
69
521 HomologyDependent Pathways of DSB Repair
70
522 HomologyIndependent Pathways of DSB Repair
71
5221 DNADependent NHEJ
72
5222 Backup NHEJ
75
53 HomologyIndependent End Joining and Chromosome Aberration Formation
77
54 DSBs NHEJ and Theories of Chromosome Aberration Formation
78
References
83
Targeted and NonTargeted Induction of Chromosomal Rearrangements After Exposure to Ionizing Radiation
86
62 RadiationInduced Chromosomal Instability
88
63 The DeathInducing Effect
90
64 Chromosomal Instability Induced by DIE Medium from Unstable Clones
93
66 Implications of NonTargeted Effects for Cytogenetic Biodosimetry
94
67 Conclusions
95
DNA Methylation Damage Formation Repair and Biological Consequences
99
72 Anticancer Drugs
100
73 DNA Lesions Sites of Attack
101
74 Repair of DNA Methylation Damage
104
742 Mismatch Repair
105
743 Base Excision Repair
106
75 Mechanism of Mutagenicity and Carcinogenicity
108
76 Mechanism of Cytotoxicity of Methylating Agents by Apoptosis
109
77 Mechanism of Formation of SCEs and Aberrations
111
772 Involvement of MMR
112
773 Conversion Rates
113
774 Critical Role of Inhibition of Replication Fork Movement
114
References
115
Adducts SisterChromatid Exchanges and Mutations Following Benzoapyrene Exposure a Review of Quantitative Data Followed by Some Considerati...
123
82 Methodological Approach
124
83 Results
125
8312 Adducts in Vivo
127
8313 BPDE Adducts Following BPDE Exposure
128
832 SisterChromatid Exchanges
130
833 Mutations
131
8332 Mutations in Vitro Following BaP Exposure
132
841 Cancer Risk Associated with a Certain Level of BaP Adducts
134
842 Supralinear DoseEffect Relationship
137
References
138
Analysis of DNA DoubleStrand Breaks by Means of γH2AX Foci
144
92 Histone H2AX
146
922 γH2AX Is Present in the Nuclear Foci
147
924 Megabase Chromatin Domains Alter Conformation After H2AX Phosphorylation
149
94 Early DSB Rejoining Can Proceed Without Foci Formation
150
96 Practical Aspects of γH2AX Estimation
151
961 Foci Size and Phosphorylation Heterogeneity
152
962 γH2AX Foci Frequency As a Measure of Radiosensitivity
154
963 γH2AX Foci Size and Frequency Depending on Radiation Quality
157
References
158
Comet Assay
161
102 Method
162
1022 Scoring of Comets
163
1024 Problem of Standardization of Methods
165
103 Factors That Might Affect the Outcome of Comet Analyses
166
1033 Smoking
167
104 AdvantagesDisadvantages
168
105 Applications
169
1051 Individual Radiosensitivity
170
1055 Biomonitoring
171
1057 UV Damage
172
Origin of Chromosome Aberrations Mechanisms
177
112 Primary DNA Damage
179
113 Models of Chromosome Aberration Formation
181
1132 The Molecular Misrecombination Model
185
1133 The TranscriptionBased Model
186
114 Models of Chromatid Aberration Formation
187
1142 Models of Chromatid Breakage
189
1143 The Revell Exchange Model
190
1144 The Misrecombination Model
192
1145 The Signal Model
193
115 Conclusions
194
Chromatin Structure and the Formation of Chromosomal Alterations
201
122 Modelling of Virtual Radiation Events
202
123 Modelling Results
203
124 Conclusions
207
References
208
Role of Chromatin Structure and Activity in the Induction of Chromosomal Aberrations
210
132 Methodological Aspects
213
Breakpoint Mapping on the CHO X Chromosome
214
13242 BrdUrd Incorporation and Immunolabelling
215
1332 Histone Acetylation Pattern and Clustering of Breakpoints
216
1333 Distribution of Breakpoints Induced by Etoposide and MMS in the X Chromosome of CHO Cells
217
134 Chromosome Damage in Human Cell Lines with Multiple X Chromosomes
219
1343 Chromosomal Aberrations Induced by γrays in Human X Chromosomes
221
A Biomedical Perspective of Telomere Structure and Function
225
142 The Complex Molecular Structure of the Terminal Chromosome Region
226
1422 Telomeric Chromatin
227
Their Importance in Human Health
228
144 Light Microscope Methods for the Study of Telomere Structure
229
1442 Telomere Microdensitometric Scanning
230
145 Microdensitometric Analysis of Tbanded Human and CHO Chromosomes
231
1452 Minute Telomeric SisterChromatid Exchanges
233
146 Final Remarks
234
References
235
CytokinesisBlock Micronucleus Assay a Comprehensive Cytome Approach for Measuring Chromosomal Instability Mitotic Dysfunction and Cell Dea...
241
152 Nucleoplasmic Bridges
244
153 Nuclear Buds
246
154 Micronuclei NPBs and Nuclear Buds Induced by Folic Acid Deficiency
248
155 BreakageFusionBridge Cycles Explain Micronuclei NPBs and Nuclear Buds Induced by Folic Acid Deficiency
249
156 Micronucleus Formation Caused by Hypomethylation of Heterochromatin and Silencing of Cell Cycle Checkpoint Genes
251
157 Conclusion
252
166 Multiple End Point Assays
266
References
267
SisterChromatid Exchanges
271
172 The Influence of BrdU on the Spontaneous SCE Level
273
173 BrdU As a Source of DNA Damage Leading to SCE Formation
275
174 The Influence of BrdU on the SCE Level Induced by Mutagenic Compounds
276
175 The Problem of False and True SCE
277
176 The Problem of Scoring SCEs in the Second Posttreatment Mitoses
279
177 Conclusions
280
Fluorescence in Situ Hybridisation
284
182 The Different Classes of DNA Probes
286
183 Chromosome Painting Probes
287
184 FISH Probes Composed of Repetitive DNA Sequences
290
1842 TelomereSpecific Probes
291
186 Comparative Genomic Hybridisation and Array Comparative Genomic Hybridisation
292
187 Probe Labelling
293
1872 Direct Labelling
294
189 Applications
295
1810 Conclusion
297
The CAB and SS Systems and an Approach Towards the Classification of Complex Chromosome Exchanges
301
192 Configuration Versus Pattern
302
193 The CAB System
304
194 The SS System
305
195 mFISH Painting
306
196 The SS Descriptor
309
197 Conclusions
313
Aberration Patterns and Cell Cycle Progression Following Exposure of Lymphocytes to the Alkylating Agent Trenimon
315
202 Methods
316
2022 Multicolor Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization
317
203 Results
319
2032 Multicolor Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization
320
2033 Conclusions
322
References
323
Cytogenetic Analysis and Occupational Health
325
212 History
326
213 Standard Method
327
215 Cytogenetic Analysis and Public Health Practice
328
216 Examples of Occupational Exposures to Carcinogens
331
21612 Epichlorohydrin
332
21613 Vinyl Chloride Monomer
333
2162 Mining
334
21623 Soft Coal Underground Mining
335
21632 Halothane
336
References
337
Biological Dosimetry
341
222 Blood Sampling and Culture Conditions
342
223 Background Frequency of Asymmetrical and Symmetrical Chromosome Exchanges
343
224 DoseResponse Relationships
345
225 In Vitro and in Vivo RadiationInduced Aberration Frequencies
347
227 Summary
348
References
349
Statistical Methods for Biological Dosimetry
351
232 Statistical Approach
352
2321 DoseResponse Calibration Curves
353
2322 Dose Assessment in WholeBody Exposure
357
233 Examples of Dose Estimation
362
2332 Low Dose Overexposure
363
2333 Partial Body Exposure
365
2334 Protracted and Fractionated Exposure
367
234 Summary
368
References
369
Retrospective Biological Dosimetry by FISH
371
242 Method
372
244 What To Score
373
245 Control Levels
374
246 Persistence of Translocations
375
247 Calibration
376
248 Sensitivity
377
249 Conclusion
378
Chromosomal Aberrations in Astronauts
381
252 Measured Yields of Exchanges in the Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes of Astronauts
383
253 Biologically Based Risk Estimates
385
254 Cytogenetic Signatures of Space Radiation Exposure
387
255 Persistence of Space Radiation Induced Cytogenetic Damage
388
256 Methodology Considerations and Suggestions for Standardized Protocols
391
2562 Assessment of Chromosome Damage
392
2563 Dose Limitations
393
2566 Dose Estimations
394
257 Conclusions
395
Internet Information System and Literature Database on Biomedical Effects of Electromagnetic Fields Cancer and Cytogenetic
397
262 Classification of Publications
398
2622 MedicalBiological Discrimination
400
Internet Information System on the Effects of Electromagnetic Fields
401
2631 Literature Database the Principal Item
402
2633 An Example on the Subject of GenotoxicityCancer
405
264 Discussion
408
References
409
Interpreting Studies on Magnetic Fields and the Risk of Childhood Leukaemia an Ongoing Challenge
410
272 Leukaemia in Children
412
2722 Origins of Childhood Leukaemia
414
2723 Aetiology of Childhood Leukaemia
416
273 Exposure to Magnetic Fields and the Risk of Childhood Leukaemia
418
2732 Interpreting the Empirical Association
419
27322 Alternative Explanations
421
274 Conclusions
422
References
424
Cytogenetic and Carcinogenic Effects of Exposure to Radiofrequency Radiation
427
282 Challenges When Conducting RFR Research
429
283 Cytogenetic Effects of RFR
431
2832 In Vivo Studies
437
2833 Human Studies
441
284 DNA Strand Breaks
445
2842 In Vivo Studies
448
285 Epigenetic Effects of RFR
452
286 Cancer Studies in Animals
454
287 Summary
464
References
465
Radiofrequency Radiation and Replication Studies
471
292 DNA Strand Breaks
472
293 Micronucleus Test
473
294 Combination Studies RFR and Other Mutagens
474
295 Discussion
476
References
477
Chromosome Analysis in Cancer Patients Applications and Limitations
479
302 Methods
480
303 Hematologic Cancers
481
3031 Myeloid Neoplasms
482
3032 Lymphoid Neoplasms
484
304 Solid Tumors
487
305 Molecular Cytogenetics
488
306 Future for Cytogenetics in Cancer Investigations
492
Chromosomal Aberration in Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes of Healthy Subjects and Risk of Cancer
494
312 The Epidemiologic Approach
496
313 Literature Review of Cohort Studies Linking CA Frequency to the Risk of Cancer
497
314 Pooled Analysis of Published Data
499
315 Preliminary Results and Open Issues
502
316 Conclusion
503
Index
505
Copyright

Other editions - View all

Common terms and phrases

Popular passages

Page 2 - It has not escaped our notice that the specific pairing we have postulated immediately suggests a possible copying mechanism for the genetic material.
Page xix - University of Texas, Health Science Center, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive, San Antonio, TX...

About the author (2007)

Both editors have a year long experience in cytogenetic research and published many papers in peer reviewed journals on different topics of cytogenetics.

Bibliographic information