Churches and chapels: Their arrangements, construction and equipment, supplemented by plans, interior and exterior views of numerous churches of different denominations, arrangement and cost

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W. T. Comstock, 1906 - Architecture - 179 pages
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Page 146 - When carbonic acid is present in excess of 10 parts in 10,000 parts of air, a feeling of weariness and stuffiness, generally accompanied by a headache, will be experienced; while with even 8 parts in 10,000 parts a room would be considered close. For general considerations of ventilation, the limit should be placed at 6 to 7 parts in 10,000...
Page lxxii - ... will dent under a blow, the finish will not crack or turn white. This is the highest achievement yet attained in a Floor Finish, and is not likely to be improved upon. Finished samples of wood and instructive pamphlet on the care of natural wood floors sent free for the asking. BERRY BROTHERS, Limited, Varnish Manufacturers, NEW YORK BOSTON PHILADELPHIA BALTIMORE CHICAGO CINCINNATI ST.
Page 163 - The chair legs throughout the entire house are provided with special latticed castings, as shown in Fig. 96, forming thereby a large number of air chambers to which air is discharged through openings in the floor immediately beneath them. The air thus passing through the floor openings at relatively high velocity is permitted to escape beneath the persons of the occupants with low and imperceptible movement, and then pass upward to the ceiling vents.
Page 165 - ... full area of a screen or register supplied from a vertical flue, the velocity in this flue should not exceed that through the outlet by more than fifty per cent. Ordinarily, flue velocities in such buildings range from 500 to 800 feet per minute. The rate of flow through the connections to the bases of the flues should in turn be higher than that through the flues themselves, while the velocity in the main horizontal distributing ducts would be even higher. In fact, in buildings of this class...
Page 165 - ... feet per minute. For average-sized schoolrooms a velocity as low as 400 feet is more desirable, while in small rooms, as in dwellings, this may well be reduced to 300 feet per minute. It is always best to keep the velocity through floor registers, at least, as low as this, and preferably lower still. To secure a fairly equable discharge through the full area of a screen or register supplied from a vertical flue, the velocity in this flue should not exceed that through the outlet by more than...
Page 80 - ... 50 to 60 per cent of the seepage. 2. A well constructed clay puddle lining is as efficient as a good oil lining. 3. A thin cement mortar lining about 1 inch thick, made of one part cement to four of sand, will prevent 75 per cent of the seepage. 4. A first-class concrete lining, 3 inches thick, made of one part of cement to two of sand and four of gravel, will stop 95 per cent of the seepage.
Page 144 - Conduction of Heat. — When heat is applied to one end of a bar of metal it is propagated through the substance of the bar, producing a rise of temperature which gradually travels to the remote portions. This transmission of heat is called conduction. It differs from radiation, first, in being gradual instead of instantaneous; second, in exhibiting no preference for travelling in straight lines, the propagation being as rapid through a crooked as a straight bar. In heating a body the heat is at...
Page 134 - The disciples of Plato contributed not a little to the advancement of optics, by the important discovery they made, that light emits itself in straight lines, and that the angle of incidence is always equal to the angle of reflection. Plato terms colours " the effect of light transmitted from bodies, the small particles of which were adapted to the organ of sight" This seems precisely what sir Isaac Newton teaches in his " Optics,
Page 165 - ... buildings range from 500 to 800 feet per minute. The rate of flow through the connections to the bases of the flues should in turn be higher than that through the flues themselves, while the velocity in the main horizontal distributing ducts would be even higher. In fact, in buildings of this class the plan should be to gradually reduce velocities from the point of leaving the fan to the point of discharge to the rooms. Careful investigation has shown that, everything considered, the velocity...
Page 149 - ... Sturtevant System forces the air into the apartment by the pressure or plenum method. When a fan is arranged to exhaust or withdraw the air from an enclosed space, the term vacuum, or exhaust method, is almost universally applied. THE EXHAUST METHOD. There are many objections to the adoption of the exhaust method in this country, and, as a rule, it should be avoided. When exhausting, a partial vacuum is created within the apartment, and all currents and leaks are inward ; there is nothing to...

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