Circular, Issues 23-26; Issues 28-29

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Page 2 - The adult insect chooses as a nidus for its eggs the twigs, preferably those of two or three years' growth, of various trees, particularly the apple, willow, cottonwood, maple, etc. ; confines itself in general to the upper surface of the twigs, and works more abundantly on the south side of the tree than on the north, although in this respect the prevailing winds and other conditions influence the insect. The eggs are deposited quite as readily in the new growth of old trees as in young trees, but...
Page 3 - ... rows of eggs, to prevent their being crushed and choked out by the rapid growth of the twig, and it is due to this peculiarity that the injury to the young limbs later assumes so serious a nature. A single incision made by the insect to contain its eggs would heal over and cause little after damage, but with the combination of two incisions and the killing of the intervening bark, causing it to adhere to the wood, a large scar is produced, which, with each subsequent year's growth, enlarges and...
Page 2 - ... INSECT DAMAGE TO CATTLE. The losses due to biting and parasitic insects of cattle are considerable. The principal culprits are the ox warble and various biting flies and ticks. The damage chargeable to the ox warble was very carefully investigated several years ago by a western farm paper, and from the averages reported from the chief cattle States of the Mississippi Valley it was shown that 50 per cent of the cattle received in the Union stock yards at Chicago during the grubby season (from...
Page 3 - ... her ovaries. The adults first appear the middle of July, and become most numerous during August and September. They begin oviposition about the middle of August, or even earlier, and continue this work until they are killed by the frosts of early winter. In Kansas I have found them busily ovipositing as late as the 24th of October. The eggs remain unchanged or dormant in the twig until the following spring, hatching in May or early in June. "The eggs of the buffalo tree-hopper are subject to...
Page 2 - ... second one is made parallel to and slightly curving toward the first, without change of position of the insect. The ovipositor, however, is thrust in at a very considerable angle from that assumed in the first case, so that it crosses beneath the bark the cut first made, and the narrow intervening bark between the two incisions is cut entirely loose. This has a very important bearing on the subsequent condition of the wounds made by the insect in oviposition. The object is doubtless to cause...
Page 3 - ... been thickly worked on by the insect become very scabby and rough, are easily broken off by the wind, and are very liable to attack by wood-boring insects. After completing the two complementary slits and filling them with eggs, the female rests a considerable time before again beginning operations. The number of eggs deposited by a single female exceeds 100, and possibly 200. Rather late in the fall a female which had just finished a pair of slits which contained some 20 eggs, was found to still...
Page 2 - ... than on the north, although in this respect the prevailing winds and other conditions influence the insect. The eggs are deposited quite as readily in the new growth of old trees as in young trees, but the damage is much more noticeable in the latter case. The eggs are placed in small compound groups arranged in two nearly parallel or slightly curved slits extending in the direction of the twig about three-sixteenths of an inch in length, and separated by one-eighth inch or less of bark. Facing...
Page 5 - Wedderburn in 1893, and probably played an important role in reducing the numbers of its host. One other parasite has been reared with this species, but it has not been identified at the present writing.
Page 2 - ... crosses beneath the bark the cut first made, and the narrow intervening bark between the two incisions is cut entirely loose. This has a very important bearing on the subsequent condition of the wounds made by the insect in oviposition. The object is doubtless to cause a certain cessation of growth' between the two rows of eggs, to prevent their being crushed and choked out by the rapid growth of the twig, and it is due to this peculiarity that the injury to the young limbs later assumes so serious...

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