Circular of the Bureau of Standards, Issue 447

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U.S. Government Printing Office, 1943 - Weights and measures

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Page 9 - Test — The Rockwell Hardness tester is essentially a machine that measures hardness by determining the depth of penetration of a penetrator into the specimen under certain arbitrarily fixed conditions of test. The penetrator may be either a steel ball or a diamond sphero-conical penetrator. The hardness value as read from the dial...
Page 9 - The Brinell test for determining the hardness of metallic materials consists in applying a known load to the surface of the material to be tested through a hardened steel ball of known diameter. The diameter (or depth) of the resulting permanent impression in the metal is measured. The Brinell hardness number is taken as the quotient of the applied load divided by the area of the surface of the impression, which is assumed to be spherical.
Page 234 - the amount of work dissipated into heat by a unit volume of the material during a completely reversed cycle of unit stress.
Page 9 - The endurance limit is the stress below which a material will withstand an indefinitely large number of cycles of stress without failure.
Page 7 - In tensile testing the reduction of area of a specimen is the ratio of the differ'ence between the original cross-sectional area of the specimen and the cross-sectional area after rupture, to the original crosssectional area. It is reported as the percentage reduction of area.
Page 13 - A process in which carbon is introduced into a solid iron-base alloy by heating above the transformation temperature range while in contact with a carbonaceous material which may be a solid, liquid, or gas.
Page 13 - Annealing — A process involving heating and cooling applied usually to induce softening. The term is also used to cover treatments intended to: (a) remove stresses; (b) alter mechanical or physical properties; (c) produce a definite microstructure; (d) remove gases. Certain specific heat treatments of iron-base alloys covered by the term Annealing...
Page 14 - Heat Treatment. — A combination of heating and cooling operations applied to a metal or alloy in the solid state to obtain desired conditions or properties. Heating for the sole purpose of hot working is excluded from the meaning of this definition.
Page 7 - J - torsional constant of the section, which in the case of a solid or hollow circular section is the polar moment of inertia of the crosssectional area with' respect to the axis of the specimen.
Page 169 - Handbook, showing the effect of tempering temperature on the physical properties of steel. These summary charts illustrate the principle that regardless of composition, steels of the same hardness produced by tempering after hardening, will have the same tensile strength and yield strength.

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