Cisco CallManager Best Practices

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Delivers the proven solutions that make a difference in your Cisco IP Telephony deployment

  • Learn dial plan best practices that help you configure features such as intercom, group speed dials, music on hold, extension mobility, and more
  • Understand how to manage and monitor your system proactively for maximum uptime
  • Use dial plan components to reduce your exposure to toll fraud
  • Take advantage of call detail records for call tracing and accounting, as well as troubleshooting
  • Utilize the many Cisco IP Telephony features to enable branch site deployments
  • Discover the best ways to install, upgrade, patch, and back up CallManager
  • Learn how backing up to remote media provides both configuration recovery and failure survivability

IP telephony represents the future of telecommunications: a converged data and voice infrastructure boasting greater flexibility and more cost-effective scalability than traditional telephony. Having access to proven best practices, developed in the field by Cisco IP Telephony experts, helps you ensure a solid, successful deployment.

Cisco CallManager Best Practices offers best practice solutions for CallManager and related IP telephony components such as IP phones, gateways, and applications. Written in short, to-the-point sections, this book lets you explore the tips, tricks, and lessons learned that will help you plan, install, configure, back up, restore, upgrade, patch, and secure Cisco CallManager, the core call processing component in a Cisco IP Telephony deployment. You'll also discover the best ways to use services and parameters, directory integration, call detail records, management and monitoring applications, and more.

Customers inspired this book by asking the same questions time after time: How do I configure intercom? What's the best way to use partitions and calling search spaces? How do I deploy CallManager regionally on my WAN? What do all those services really do? How do I know how many calls are active? How do I integrate CallManager with Active Directory? Years of expert experiences condensed for you in this book enable you to run a top-notch system while enhancing the performance and functionality of your IP telephony deployment.

 

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Contents

Planning the Call Manager Implementation
3
Read the Solution Reference Network Designs
4
Check the Compatibility Matrix
5
Implement Quality of Service
6
Build Redundancy into Your Network Design
7
Document the Current Data Infrastructure
8
Assess the Current Voice Environment
9
Document the Existing and Desired Dial Plan
14
General Deployment Guidelines
256
Use Dial Plan Features to Prevent Toll Fraud
257
Restrict AutoRegistered IP Phones
258
Block Common Fraudulent Area Codes Using a Single Partition
261
Configure Explicit External Route Patterns
263
Use the Cisco Dialed Number Analyzer to Test Your Configuration
264
Use MRGLs to Ensure Tone on Hold Rather than MOH if Desired
265
Configure a Continuously Running MOH Stream
266

Document Classes of Service
15
Document the CDR Method
16
Determine the Current Applications
18
Document All Existing Hardware
20
Choose the Right Equipment
21
Server Memory Requirements
22
Choosing Phone Types
23
Create a Training Curriculum for Users and Administrators
24
User Training Techniques
25
Administrator Training
26
Establish a Rollout Plan
28
Number of Phones
29
Amount of Time to Cutover
30
Determine the Cutover Method
31
Dual Phone and Then Flash Cut
33
Create User Information Packets
34
Institute a Problem Reporting and Escalation Plan
35
Establish Operations Procedures
36
Summary
38
Planning Centralized Call Processing Deployments
41
Establishing Basic WAN Connectivity
43
Deployment Using Frame Relay
45
Deployment Using Asynchronous Transfer Mode
46
Deployment Using Multiprotocol Label Switching MPLS
47
Deployment Using Voice and Video Virtual Private Networks
48
Tuning Quality of Service on the WAN
49
Use IP RTP Priority Queuing if You Cannot Use LLQ
50
At a Minimum Use LLQ for Marked or Unmarked Packets
52
Use LLQ with Marked and Trusted Incoming Packets
55
Reducing Jitter
56
Use LFI with Traffic Shaping for Frame Relay
57
Adjusting Bandwidth Consumption
58
Choosing the Codec
59
Preventing WAN Oversubscription by Using LocationsBased Call Admission Control CAC
60
Configure Locations
62
Dynamically Rerouting Calls Using Automated Alternate Routing
66
Survive WAN Outages by Using SRST
69
Understanding SRST User Functionality
70
Understanding SRST at the Central Site
71
Deploying SRST at the Location
73
Limit the Number of Lines on Particular Phone Types
75
Enable G711 Music on Hold Sourcing at the Location
76
Voice Mail During SRST Fallback
78
PSTN Calling During SRST Fallback
82
Choosing Gateways to Support Centralized Call Processing Functionality
85
Summary
88
Installing CallManager
91
Determine the Installation Logistics
92
Prepare the Installation Checklist
93
Prepare the Installation Media
94
Verify Network Connectivity
95
Use Dual Network Interface Cards Adapter Teaming
96
Locate Your Cisco SmartNet Contract Number or System Serial Number
97
Hardware Compatibility
98
Avoid Windows Domain Participation
100
Use Consistent Passwords Across Servers
101
After the Installation
102
Do Not Change OS Parameters
103
Do Not Create Other Accounts on the System
104
Verify Database Synchronization
105
Use the Cisco Security Agent
107
Backing Up and Restoring the Environment
111
Consider the Whole Deployment
112
Back Up All Important Data on the CallManager Server
113
Back Up All Music on Hold Audio Sources
114
Back Up the Cisco Unity Messaging Repository
115
Back Up Ethernet Switches and Router Configurations
116
Planning Your Backup Strategy
117
Determine Backup Schedules
118
Use BARS to Back Up the Environment
119
Become Familiar with BARS
121
Use Consistent Private Password Phrases
123
Things to Be Aware of When Restoring from a BARS Backup
125
Reinstall Restore or Recover?
126
Troubleshooting Typical Backup Problems
127
Resolving NetBIOS and Windows Internet Name Service Issues
128
Identifying SQL Password and Replication Problems
133
Summary
135
Upgrading and Patching CallManager
137
Understand the Difference Between Patching and Upgrading
138
Use a Staging Environment if Applicable
140
Select the Appropriate Upgrade Version of CallManager
141
Read the Release Notes
142
Obtain Media Well in Advance of Upgrading by Using the Product Upgrade Tool
143
Download Maintenance Releases
144
Run the Upgrade Assistant Utility
145
Performing a CallManager Upgrade Using a Staging Server
146
Schedule an Outage Window
147
Freeze Call Forward All Setting from IP Phones
148
Use a Spare Drive to Remirror
150
Check the Event Log
151
Move the Hard Disk into the Production System in Careful Order
152
Install the Service Release While Observing Precautions
154
Summary
155
Securing the Environment
157
Classes of Voice Security Threats
159
Violation of Integrity
160
Create a Security Policy to Guide Your Efforts
161
Review an Infrastructure Security Feature Checklist
164
Harden Access to Routers and Switches
165
OutofBand Management for CatOSIOS Devices
167
Encrypted Connections for Management Control Traffic
168
Statically Restrict MAC Addresses on a Switch Port Using Port Security
169
Dynamically Restrict Ethernet Port Access with 8021x Ethernet Port Authentication
170
Which Ethernet Ports Require 8021x Authentication?
172
Do All Your Clients Support 8021x?
173
Dont Trust Class of Service Settings from PCs Behind IP Phones
174
DHCP Option 82 Stops Broadcast of DHCP Replies
175
DHCP Snooping Protects Against DHCP Spoofing
176
ARP and GARP Associate Layer 2 and Layer 3 Addresses
177
DAI Blocks Inconsistent GARPs and ARP Replies
178
Lock Down Layer 2 Control Protocols
179
Stop VLAN Membership Policy Service Query Protocol to VLAN Membership Policy Server
180
Stop Bridge Protocol Data Unit SpanningTree Attacks with BPDU Guard
181
Enable STP on Client Ports if They Behave Well
182
Configure VTP Transparent Mode to Disable VLAN Trunking Protocol
183
Change the Default Native VLAN to a Value Other Than VLAN 1
184
Beware of 8021q Tunneling
185
Beware of Broadcast Storm Control
186
Restrict Access by Filtering Network Traffic
187
VLAN and Port Access Control Lists
188
NetworkBased Application Recognition
189
Simplify ACLs by Smartly Allocating IP Addresses
190
Authenticate Routing Protocol Traffic
191
Authenticate HSRP and VRRP
192
VSPNs Let Voice Traffic Traverse an Untrusted IP Network
193
Harden Access via IP Phones
194
Drop 8021q Frames Received via the PC Port on IP Phones
196
Harden CallManager and Voice Application Servers
197
Updates and Product Patches
198
Use McAfee or NortonSymantec Virus Protection
200
Use CiscoWorks VPNSecurity Management Solution to Manage Your Cisco Security Agent
201
Secure Remote Administration of CallManager
202
Use IPSec VPN to Reach an IPBased KVM Switch
203
Turn off IIS on Subscribers
204
Secure Endpoint Provisioning
207
Endpoint Image Authentication
208
Generate Unique PublicPrivate Key Pairs in Phones
209
Phones with Manufacturing Installed Certificates
210
Establish a CTL File
212
Get a CTL into Phones
214
Secure Endpoint Operation
215
Encrypt RTF Media Streams via Secure RTF
216
SRTP Behavior with Call Features
218
Secure Interserver Communication for MGCP SIP H323 and Java Telephony API Signaling via IPSec
219
Implementation Considerations
220
Summary
221
Configuring Call Manager and IP Telephony Components
225
Read the Documentation Recommended Reading List
226
Use IP Addresses Instead of Server Host Names
227
Leave the Default CallManager Name as Is
228
Name CallManager Redundancy Groups Descriptively
229
Use Standard Usernames
230
Use Device Pools to Configure Common Parameters and BulkReset Devices
231
Enable Dependency Records
232
Reduce the Interdigit Timeout Default Value
233
Teach Users How to Use IP Phones
234
Teach Users to Use the Cisco CallManager User Options Web Page
235
Download the Cisco IP Phone Services SDK to Deploy Free Services on Your Phones
236
Write Your Own Custom Phone Services
237
Configure Private Line Automatic Ringdown for Emergency Access
238
Use Abbreviated Dialing to Provide More Speed Dials for Users
241
Gateway Best Practices
242
Do Not Include Other Gateways in Gateway Calling Search Spaces
243
Dial Plan Best Practices
244
Implement Class of Service Restrictions by Ordering Your Partitions in Calling Search Spaces
246
Use WellNamed Partitions and Calling Search Spaces to Effectively Segment the Dial Plan
247
Create a Partition for Globally Blocked Numbers and Create Specific Partitions for Exceptions to the Globally Blocked Numbers
248
Use the 9 Route Pattern with Great Care
249
Use LineBased Calling Search Spaces in Addition to PhoneBased Calling Search Spaces with Caveats
250
Accommodate Extension Mobility in the Dial Plan
255
Deploy Video as Needed
267
Force Automatic Logout When a User Logs in to Another Phone
268
Implementing Intercom Using PLAR Extensions
269
Implementing Intercom Using Speed Dial Buttons
271
Implementing Group Intercom Using the Speed Dial Await Further Digits Service Parameter
272
Changing Outbound Caller ID to the Main Number
273
Enabling Outbound Caller ID for Extensions Connected to Different Exchanges
274
Blocking Outbound Caller ID on a PerCall Basis
275
Configure System and Group Speed Dials
276
Get More Lines for Fewer Buttons
277
Check the Busy Trigger
278
Understand Call Stacking the Behavior of Multiple Calls Per Line the Busy Trigger and No Answer Ring Duration
279
Think of the Buttons on the Phone as LineFeature Buttons
281
Consider Not Using the IPMA Configuration Wizard
282
Save Directory Numbers in Proxy Line Mode by Using a Prefix Character
283
Verify Your Configuration and Physical Connection When Using CMI
286
Tools and Application Best Practices
287
Use the Trace Collection Tool for Convenient Trace Collection
288
Use the Bulk Administration Tool
289
Use Standard Calling Party Names
290
Use a Barcode Scanner with Keyboard Input
291
Run a Query in BAT to Generate a List of Unassigned DNs
292
Use Cisco IP Communicator as the Preferred SoftwareBased Phone Model Unless Collaboration Is Needed
293
Use G729 for Best Audio Quality in a LimitedBandwidth Environment
294
Attendant Console Best Practices
295
Provide Personalized Call Distribution via Cisco Personal Assistant with or Without Speech Recognition
296
Managing Services and Parameters
299
About Services
301
Changing or Displaying the Status of Services
313
Restarting Services
314
Document the System Before Making Changes and Limit the Number of Changes Made at One Time
315
Distinguishing Clusterwide Parameters
316
Beware of Enterprise Parameters That Require a Restart of All Devices
317
Cisco Call Manager Service and Related Parameters
318
Customize Data for CCM Traces and Cisco Dialed Number Analyzer
319
Locations Trace Details Enabled
320
Parameters You Should Ignore
321
Forward Maximum Hop Count
322
Check the Display Text for Translated Parameters
323
If Secondary Lines Are Shared Use the Primary Line for Voice Mail Access
324
Enable Distinctive Rings for OnNet and OffNet Calls
326
Enable FastStart with Centralized Call Processing
327
Prevent Hold Music from Streaming to a Conference
328
Choose a Dial Tone
329
Cisco Messaging Interface Service and Related Parameters
331
Do Not Configure CMI Parameters if You Use Cisco Unity or Integrate Legacy Voice Mail Using SMDI on a Cisco VG248
332
Specify a CallManager Name and a Backup CallManager Name
333
Cisco CTIManager Service
334
Cisco Telephony Call Dispatcher Service
335
Cisco MOH Audio Translator Service and Related Parameter
336
IncreaseDecrease the MOH Volume
337
Leave the Data Collection Enabled Parameter at the Default Setting to Collect Systemwide Statistics
338
Cisco CDR Insert Service
339
Cisco Extended Functions Service and a Related Parameter
340
Change the Call Back Sound Using the Audio File Name Parameter if Desired
341
Cisco IP Manager Assistant Service
342
Enforce a Maximum Login Time for Extension Mobility
343
Configure Extension Mobility So That Phones Remember the Last User Logged In
344
Let Users Customize Ring Tones
345
Choose Your Locale
346
Using Multilevel Administration
349
Changes from the Previous Release
353
Integrated Database
354
Enable MLA for Added Security
355
Monitor the Access Log for Malicious Login Attempts
356
Create UserSpecific Accounts
357
Create Custom User Groups
358
Assign Group Privileges
359
Keep an Eye on Your System
360
Use the IIS Log File to Trace a CCMAdministrator Login to a Machine
361
Get to Know Your Companys Human Resources Managers
362
Always Close the Web Browser
363
Conduct Periodic Security Audits
364
Mastering Directory Integration
367
Directory Access for IP Telephony Endpoints
369
Directory Integration for CallManager
372
Run the Cisco Customer Directory Configuration Plugin
374
Adding CallManager Servers to a Domain
375
Preparing the Directory for Integration
377
Integrating CallManager with the Directory
383
Maintaining the Directory Integration
388
CallManager Upgrades
390
Administering Call Detail Records
393
Use CDR Data for AccountingBilling or Troubleshooting
394
Limit the Number of CDR and CMR Entries
395
Configure CDR Enterprise Parameters
396
Enable Network Time Synchronization on All CallManagers and Update the Configuration File if Needed
398
Understanding the Call Detail Record Format
399
New CDR Fields in CallManager Release 40
404
Frequently Searched CDR Fields
409
ITU Q850 Cause Codes Table
410
Understanding CDR Data Through Call Examples
414
Establish Baseline Jitter and Latency Characteristics
415
An Example of an Unsuccessful Call
416
Search the CDR SQL Database
417
Export CDR Data for Further Analysis
418
Convert Epoch Time to HumanReadable Time Using the CDR Time Converter Utility
419
Convert a 32Bit Signed Integer Value to an IP Address
420
Using Microsoft Excel Formulas to Convert UTC and IP Addresses
421
Using the CAR Tool
422
Avoid Common Installation Pitfalls
424
Examine Weekly and Monthly Utilization Reports
425
Run Weekly Voice Messaging Utilization Reports to Check for Oversubscription
426
ThirdParty CDR Applications
428
Summary
430
Managing and Monitoring the System
433
Choosing the Best Overall Methodology
434
ToolBased Monitoring
435
Make Monitoring a Daily Process
436
Choose the Right AAA Protocol
437
Configure Authentication to Limit and Track Access
439
TACACS+ Configuration
440
Configure Authorization to Limit Allowable Commands
442
Configure Accounting to Track Issued Commands
444
Using Syslog to Monitor the System
445
Facilities
446
Syslog Message Format
447
Determine the Right Logging Severity
448
Configure IOS Gateways for Syslog
449
Configure a LinuxBased Syslog Server if Your Network Doesnt Have a Server
451
Use the CiscoWorks Syslog Service if Available
454
What to Do When You Dont Control the Syslog Server
456
Use a Syslog Analyzer if You Can
457
Using SNMP Where Possible
459
Choose Complex Community Strings
460
Limit Allowable Hosts
461
Configure Trap Destinations
462
Traps in CISCOCCMMIB
463
CCM Alarm Facility Traps
465
Use Microsoft Performance for RealTime Data If It Fits Your Current Model
466
Check the Call Manager Trace Facility Configuration and Log Files
467
Using Windows Terminal Services
468
Upgrades Are Not Supported via Terminal Services
469
Using VNC
470
Close VNC After Initiating Upgrades
471
Using RealTime Monitoring Tool
473
Changes from Earlier Releases
474
Decide What to Monitor
475
Monitor Trunk Utilization Closely
476
Modify Preconfigured Alerts if Needed
477
Configure Perfmon Counters and Set Alerts
482
Use the Serviceability Reports Archive
483
Create Custom Reports from Raw RISDC Data
484
Alert Log Format
485
Service Log Format
486
Call Log Format
487
Device Log Format
489
Perfmon Log Format
490
Summary
491
Call Manager 40 New Feature Description
493
Multilevel Precedence and Preemption
494
Precedence Calls Between Selected IP Phones in the Same Cluster
496
Annunciator
497
Desktop Video Telephony
498
Cisco VT Advantage
499
Configure CiscoApproved H323 Video Endpoints in CallManager Administration Instead of Using a Gatekeeper
500
Multiple Calls Per Line Appearance
502
Barge Enhancements cBarge
503
Privacy Enhancements Privacy
504
Drop Any Party from Ad Hoc Conference Drop
505
Direct Transfer DirTrfr
506
Conferencing Infrastructure Enhancements
508
Malicious Call Identification MCID
510
Published API Enhancements
511
Logon Services Enhancements
512
Management and Monitoring Enhancements
513
Cisco CallManager Attendant Console Enhancements
514
Other Enhancements and Caveats
515
Glossary
517
Index
557
Copyright

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About the author (2004)

Salvatore Collora, CCIE® No. 4321, is a network consulting engineer for Cisco Systems® Advanced Services who specializes in implementing IP telephony and security in large customer networks. He has deployed many large CallManager-based IP telephony networks and often works in emergency situations to fix improper installation and configuration of CallManager.

Ed Leonhardt, CCIE No. 3264, is a consulting systems engineer and serves as a technical lead in the combined Enterprise/Service Provider IP Telephony Technology Leadership Program at Cisco Systems. He drives new product requirements to the individual product teams and guides overall system engineer development in technologies surrounding IP telephony.

Anne Smith is a technical writer in the CallManager engineering group at Cisco Systems. She has written technical documentation for the Cisco IP Telephony solution since CallManager release 2.0 and was part of the Selsius Systems acquisition in 1998. She is a coauthor of Cisco CallManager Fundamentals and Troubleshooting Cisco IP Telephony from Cisco Press.

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