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The Arab West
Theology Philosophy Literature
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Abbasid Abd ar-Rahman Abd ar-Rahman III ad-Din administration al-islam Alid Allah Almohad Almoravids Arab Arabia aristocracy army Ayyubid Baghdad Banu Basra battle Bedouin Berber Buyids Byzantine Byzantium caliph central centre Christian Community conquest crusaders cultural Damascus dar al-islam death defeat divine dynasty economic Egypt eleventh century empire faith Fatimids futuwwa Ghaznavids Greek Holy Ibn Tumart imam important independent influence intellectual Iran Iranian Iraq Islam Jerusalem Jewish Jews Kharijites Khorasan Koran land later Latin Mahdi Mecca Medina Mesopotamia military Mongols mosque Mu'awiya Muhammad Muhammad ibn Muslim mystical ninth nomads North Africa orthodoxy pagan peninsula period Persian political population princes Prophet provinces Qarmatians religion religious revelation rule ruler Saladin Sasanid Seljuq Shi'a Shi'ite Spain sphere Sunnite Syria teaching tenth century territory theological tion took towns tradition tribal tribes troops Turkish Turks Umar Umayyad umma unity victory vizir Yemen Yusuf Zirids