Classical Motivation Theories - Similarities and Differences Between Them
GRIN Verlag, 2007 - 56 pages
Bachelor Thesis from the year 2006 in the subject Psychology - Work, Business, Organisational and Economic Psychology, grade: B+, Cardiff University, 37 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: Introduction "We always do what we MOST WANT to do, whether or not we like what we are doing at each instant of our lives. Wanting and liking many times are not the same thing. Many people have done what they say they didn't want to do at a particular moment. And that may be true until one looks deeper into the motivation behind the doing. What they are really saying is the price they will have to pay or the consequences they will have to endure, for not doing that something may be too high or onerous for them not to do it. Such as going to work. Many people say they don't want to go to work and yet they do. Which means they don't want to risk losing their jobs and the negative hurting emotions associated with not having a job. It has been estimated about 90% to 95% of all people work at jobs which are unfulfilling and which they dislike and would leave in a minute if they only knew what they really wanted to do." Sidney Madwed (http: //www.quotationspage.com/search.php3?homesearch=motivation accessed on 15.02.2006) The quotation defines that nowadays motivation should be an indispensable part of every company. It is a complex and difficult topic and therefore management also has to take historical theories into account. Furthermore, it has to be figured out what employees designate as attractive for defining an effective motivation programme within the organisation. This dissertation will critically evaluate what motivation is and illustrate the different kinds of motivation theories of Abraham Maslow, Frederick Herzberg and Clayton P. Alderfer by explaining the key concepts for managing and motivating people. Due to the fact that motivation, especially employee motivation, is such a broad topic the dissertation will put a specific focus on th
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Abraham Maslow Alderfer’s ERG-theory Classical Motivation Theories define desire dissertation employee motivation employee’s employees in order esteem needs example existence needs expectancy theory Figure Frederick Herzberg Furthermore growth needs Herzberg and Alderfer Herzberg and Clayton Herzberg’s theory Herzberg’s two factor hierarchy of human higher order needs Hodgetts and Luthans Human Relations Movement humanistic psychology important individuals intrinsic motivation job dissatisfaction job enlargement job enrichment Job rotation job satisfaction lower level needs lower needs Maslow’s hierarchy Maslow’s theory model of Maslow motivate employees Motivation-hygiene theory Motivators and Hygiene needs are satisfied needs include organisational behaviour performance person Petzall physiological and safety physiological needs production psychologists result rewards Robbins and Coulter safety needs satisfaction and dissatisfaction satisfaction-progression-model Scientific Management Self-actualisation needs Selvarajah and Willis Similarities and Differences social needs stronger they become taken into consideration tasks theories of Maslow theories of motivation theory comprises three needs unsatisfied need workers
Page 44 - The only lifelong, reliable motivations are those that come from within, and one of the strongest of those is the joy and pride that grow from knowing that you've just done something as well as you can do it.
Page 9 - People will most likely engage in desired behavior if they are rewarded for doing so; these rewards are most effective if they immediately follow the desired response; and behavior that is not rewarded, or is punished, is less likely to be repeated.
Page 11 - The only way to get people to like working hard is to motivate them. Today, people must understand why they're working hard. Every individual in an organization is motivated by something different.
Page 17 - Next, we begin to look for a little self-esteem. Maslow noted two versions of esteem needs, a lower one and a higher one. The lower one is the need for the respect of others, the need for status, fame, glory, recognition, attention, reputation, appreciation, dignity, even dominance. The higher form involves the need for self-respect, including such feelings as confidence, competence, achievement, mastery, independence, and freedom.
Page 20 - Unlike the Freudians, Maslow was above all an optimist. Not only did he describe ultimate human potential in the most generous terms of self-actualization, he held that people were powerfully motivated to achieve that potential.
Page 20 - Few other motivational theories matched Maslow's in boldness and intellectual creativity. His theory had the virtues of clarity, economy, and flexibility, without sacrifice of comprehensiveness.
Page 11 - Motivation is closely linked to the performance of human resources in modern organisations but it must be remembered that although the motivation process may be the same across cultures, the content of what motivates people is often different.
Page 8 - Furthermore, he stated that people will most likely engage in desired behaviours if they are positively reinforced for doing so and rewards are most effective if they immediately follow the desired response.
Page 14 - ... or someone being managed, motivation is a prime concern and of considerable social and economic significance.
Page 14 - ... individuals and teams are an important ingredient of success. Motivated individuals tend to work with greater effort and condfidence and enjoy high productivity.