Climate Change -: Environment and History of the Near East

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Springer Science & Business Media, Jun 10, 2007 - Science - 290 pages
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When the ?rst edition of this book was published in 2004, the following year 2005 has happened to have been the warmest year since 1880, when the ?rst reliable worldwide instrumental records came into existance. Claiming no li- age between the publication of our book and the temperature record, yet this record demonstrates the trend of increase in the global surface temperatures during thepast20years,reinforcedbyevidenceofriseofatmosphere’sand oceans’ temperatures, and increased melting of ice and snow in the arctic and antarctic regions as well as on mountain tops. All these observations are par- leled by the increase in the quantity of heat trapping gases in the atmosphere, causing most probably, the global greenhouse effect. In order to try and predict, what might be the impact of this effect on the on the natural and human environments of the Near East, (Figs. 1–1d) the authors adopted the saying that the past is the key for the future. The practical conclusion of this principle says that the acquiring knowledge of the impact of past climate changes on the nature and human societies, may allow conclusions with regard to future possible impact of climate changes. By correlating proxy data of all types, paleo-sea and lake levels, paleo-hydrology, pollen pro?les, environmental isotopes as well as archaeological and historical documents, the authors tried to collect as much as possible of this knowledge.
 

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Contents

The Pendulum of Paradigms
1
Constructing the Jigsaw Puzzle of PalaeoClimates
11
Time Series of ProxyData to Decipher Climates of the Past
14
The Near East A Bridge from the Garden of Eden to the Fields of Toil
39
Humble Beginnings
42
The End of the Last Ice Age
53
The Start of Settled Life
57
The Establishment of Agricultural Villages The Pre Pottery Neolithic 60008000BCE
60
Focussing on the Impact of Climate on the Events at the End of the Second Millennium BCE
165
The Wave Pattern of Migrations and theSea Peoples
167
A Glance at Ugarit
176
The Aramaeans and theWandering of the Israelites
179
The Formative Years of the Israelite Nation
182
The Age of Iron and Empires
193
The Aramaeans Occupy Center Stage
195
The Empires of Assyria and Babylon A Brief and Brutal Performance
196

The Great Transition From Farming Villages to Urban Centers
66
The Progress of Climate
68
The First Technological RevolutionThe Pottery Neolithic Period 600045004000BCEFig5
73
The Metallurgical RevolutionThe Chalcolithic Period 4500400035003000BCE
83
From Copper to BronzeThe Beginning of the Early Bronze Age
96
The Urban Revolution and the Dawn of History
103
The Climate BackgroundWhen Cities Drowned and the Desert Bloomed
105
The Early Bronze Age in the Levant and Anatolia
106
The Great Civilizations
112
Egypt United Under One Crown
129
Dark AgeRenaissanceand Decay
135
The Crisis YearsThe Climate Evidence
136
The Archaeological and Historical Evidence About the Intermediate Bronze Age
142
TheWinning of the Souththe Migration Southward
150
The Crisis Years in Egypt
154
The Late Bronze Ageca1500 to 1200BCETable 4
157
Migrations and Settlings
163
The Persian Empire and the First Unification of the Ancient Near East
201
Hellenism Dominates the Near East and Unites East and West
205
Under the Boot of Rome and the Beginning of Christianity
208
The Arabs and Islam Emerge from the Desert
216
CrusadersMamluksand Ottomans on the Eve of the Era of Industry ca800CEto the Present
220
The CrusadersInterlude
222
The Slaves who Became SultansMamluksMongols and Turks
226
The Ottoman Centuries Peace and Stagnation
228
An Epilogue
235
Appendix I
238
Appendix II
253
Appendix III
255
Appendix IV
263
Appendix V
273
Index
275
Copyright

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Page xix - BASOR Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research CAD The Assyrian Dictionary of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago.

About the author (2007)

Arie S. Issar is Professor Emeritus at the J. Blaustein Institute for Desert Research, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Israel