Climate Change, Sustainable Economic Systems and Welfare

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DIANE Publishing, Jun 1, 1993 - Agriculture - 22 pages
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Deals with the problems of climate change & the international cooperation necessary to combat the problem.

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Page 8 - ... 4. STRATEGIES FOR MITIGATION Some research on the economic potential for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases from agriculture has been completed. Agriculture contributes methane from ruminants and rice paddies, carbon dioxide from deforestation and fossil fuels, and nitrous oxides from the use of chemical fertilizers. In all cases, these sources of emissions should be compared with the amounts of carbon sequestered through plant growth to determine the net contribution of agriculture to greenhouse...
Page 3 - The sources of uncertainty discussed above reflect the current state of knowledge about the physical relations that affect climate. More research needs to be done to understand these relations better, but other sources of uncertainty are important. They include how people will react to changes in climate, and how their behavior affects emissions of greenhouse gases. These issues correspond to adaptation and mitigation which have been the focus of research in the US over the past few years.
Page 4 - Kaiser et al. by linking a model that generates weather patterns to crop yield/soil models to a management decision model. For a given region, this framework makes it possible to focus on adaptability over time, responses by farmers to variability of yield as well as changes in average yields, and the adoption of new crops and cultivars. The important point is that results are conditional on explicit specifications about climate and soil characteristics. Table...
Page 16 - These sectors arc the primary sources of well-being for a majority of the world's population. If food is expensive, the effect on the cost-of-living is much higher for poor people because the proportion of their income spent on food is larger than it is for rich people. It is unfortunate that the issues of population growth and income inequality are not central to government policy in the US.
Page 10 - Countries with the potential for expanding agricultural production stand to gain from policies that reduce income differentials in the world. It is important for cross-country comparisons of consumption patterns to have models that are robust to a wide range of income levels. Many conventional economic models perform well for average situations (ie mean values of the sample used for estimation) but the economic properties breakdown under more extreme situations [see Christensen and Caves, and Tyrrell...
Page 16 - US than in other industrialized nations. There are no simple solutions for dealing with the interrelated problems of climate change, economic inequality and population growth, but five issues should be considered as a basis for establishing general objectives among nations for future environmental policies. These issues are obvious to many people but are not yet reflected adequately in government policies in the US.
Page 3 - Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) are even more potent, but their effects may be offset by allowing more infrared radiation to escape from the atmosphere due to the associated effect of depleting ozone levels in the stratosphere. Nitrogen oxides emitted at high altitudes from airplanes may have a greater effect on climate than the same amount of emissions from automobiles. Hence, even if economic models could predict the emissions of greenhouse gases accurately their effects on radiative forcing are not...
Page 6 - POOR 1 36 0 63 nearly two-thirds soybeans and the rest maize. However, with the hotter, drier climate and the poor soil (Case 4), there is virtually no maize grown, soybeans are cut to just over a third and the rest is fallow. The surprise is that sorghum is not selected in Case 4 even though it is relatively tolerant to dry spells...
Page 4 - Table 1 shows the cropping patterns predicted for four different specifications for farms in the upper Midwest of the US, representing different physical properties for climate and soil. In all cases, the results show the average cropping pattern for a 70 year simulation. Different cultivars for each crop are considered explicitly in the analysis and aggregated in Table 1.

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