Climate Change and Globalization in the Arctic: An Integrated Approach to Vulnerability Assessment

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Earthscan, 2012 - Nature - 254 pages
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Climate change vulnerability assessment is a rapidly developing field. However, despite the fact that such major trends as globalization and the changing characteristics of the political and economic governance systems are crucial in shaping a communitys capacity to adapt to climate change, these trends are seldom included in assessments. This book addresses this shortcoming by developing a framework for qualitative vulnerability assessment in multiple impact studies (of climate change and globalization) and applying this framework to several cases of renewable natural resource use.The book draws upon case studies of forestry and fishing - two of the largest sectors that rely on renewable natural resources - and reindeer herding in the European North. The study represents a bottom-up view, originating with the stakeholders themselves, of the degree to which stakeholders find adaptation to climate change possible and how they evaluate it in relation to their other concerns, notably economic and political ones. Moreover, the approach and research results include features that could be broadly generalized to other geographic areas or sectors characterized by renewable natural resource use.
 

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Contents

Vulnerability Assessment in the Context of Multiple Levels and Impacts
1
Research questions
3
Organization of the book
6
Structuring the Conceptions of Change
9
112 The history of vulnerability assessment
12
113 The extension of climate change vulnerability assessment to social vulnerability
14
114 Communitybased and doubleexposure approaches
17
115 Assessing vulnerability and adaptive capacity
19
42 Socioeconomic changes in reindeer herding
103
421 Increased mechanization costs and supplementary feeding
104
422 Supplementary feeding
107
423 The meat market meat prices and profitability
110
Refining and marketing to increase consumption
112
Legislation and support
114
431 National systems for financial support and stabilizing the number of reindeer
115
432 Impacts on reindeer herding from multiple use of forests
120

12 Adaptation as a political process
23
13 A focus on multilevel governance for vulnerability assessment
26
14 Analysing organizing and understanding largescale change
29
Definitions of economic and political globalization
32
152 Political globalization
35
16 A framework for assessing vulnerability and adaptive capacity to multiple stresses
37
A Methodology for Vulnerability Assessment
39
211 Stakeholderdefined nested scale levels and stressors
40
212 Relation of the study to participatory and modellingfocused vulnerability assessment
42
22 A structure for vulnerability assessment
44
2221 Case study areas
46
223 Methodology and material
48
224 Identification of governance networks and norms
52
225 Synthesis of climate change scenario and impacts literature
53
2251 General impacts of climate change
54
2252 Impacts of climate change on forestry
57
2253 Impacts of climate change on reindeer herding
58
2254 Impacts of climate change on fishing
59
Perceptions of Change Vulnerability and Adaptive Capacity among Forest Industry Stakeholders in Northern Sweden and Finland
61
32 Socioeconomic change in the industry
62
321 Rationalization and technological change over time
63
The example of small sawmills
65
323 The mobility of larger actors and dependence on resource access
66
324 The changing role of the state
68
33 The political network influencing the forest industry
69
331 Support possibilities at the local and regional levels
70
332 National legislation and support
71
Environmental protection as a priority
74
3331 Nature reserves
75
Socioeconomic and political globalization?
78
334 The governance network as perceived by local forestry
80
34 Climate and climate change
84
341 Climate impacts on forestry in autumn and winter
85
342 Spring and summer
87
Vulnerability and adaptive capacity in forestry
92
352 Adaptation in the context of administration and policy
94
Climate change as an addition to an increasing resource problematique
95
36 The nature of adaptation
96
Perceptions of Change Vulnerability and Adaptive Capacity among Reindeer Herding Stakeholders in Northern Norway Sweden and Finland
99
411 Reindeer herding organizations and practices
100
433 International norms and regulation impacting reindeer herding
123
434 The governance network perceived by reindeer herding
127
44 Climate change
131
441 Autumn and winter
132
442 Spring and summer
135
Vulnerability and adaptive capacity in reindeer herding
138
451 Adaptations at the individual level to economic changes
139
452 Adaptation within the governance and political regulatory framework
140
453 Adaptation to climate change
141
46 The vulnerability of reindeer herding
142
Perceptions of Change Vulnerability and Adaptive Capacity among Fishing Stakeholders in Northernmost Norway
145
52 The socioeconomic change in fishing
148
522 The quota system and fishing economy
152
Different types of fish processing
154
53 Political and organizational change in fishing
156
532 Local and regionallevel support for fishing
159
533 Nationallevel state and interest group decisionmaking and quota allocation
161
534 The impact of international norms and the international and EU levels
164
535 The governance network perceived by local smallscale fishing
165
54 Environmental and climate change in fishing
168
542 Climate change
169
5421 Autumn and winter
170
5422 Spring and summer
171
Vulnerability and adaptive capacity
175
552 Largerscale adaptation within the governance network
176
553 Adaptations to climate change
177
56 The vulnerability of local fishing
178
Conclusion
179
611 Economic globalization?
180
612 Political globalization? The pattern of governance and the role of traditional policy actors
182
Governance by the state and the market
184
614 Is globalization a key determinant of change?
186
615 Is globalization a key determinant of social vulnerability and adaptive capacity?
188
616 Climate change
190
Summary of vulnerability adaptive capacity and types of adaptation in the areas
192
Notes
197
References
231
Index
247
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About the author (2012)

E. Carina H. Keskitalo is Associate Professor of Political Science at Ume University, Sweden, and a researcher in national and international projects on adaptation to climate change.

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