Climate Change in the Polar Regions
The polar regions have experienced some remarkable environmental changes in recent decades, such as the Antarctic ozone hole, the loss of large amounts of sea ice from the Arctic Ocean and major warming on the Antarctic Peninsula. The polar regions are also predicted to warm more than any other region on Earth over the next century if greenhouse gas concentrations continue to rise. Yet trying to separate natural climate variability from anthropogenic factors still presents many problems. This book presents a thorough review of how the polar climates have changed over the last million years and sets recent changes within a long term perspective. The approach taken is highly cross-disciplinary and the close links between the atmosphere, ocean and ice at high latitudes are stressed. The volume will be invaluable for researchers and advanced students in polar science, climatology, global change, meteorology, oceanography and glaciology.
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2 Polar climate data and models
3 The high latitude climates and mechanisms of change
4 The last million years
5 The Holocene
6 The instrumental period
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aerosol Alaska annual cycle anomalies Antarctic Ice Sheet Antarctic Peninsula anthropogenic Arctic Ocean atmospheric circulation carbon climate change climate models climate system climate variability cloud coast coastal concentrations continent cooling cyclone decrease Early Holocene Earth’s East Antarctica emission ENSO estimated feedbacks flow flux gases glacial glaciers global greenhouse gas Greenland Ice Sheet heat ice cores ice shelves Iceland impact increase indicate interglacial IPCC Island kyr BP latitude areas Laurentide Ice Sheet layer major mass balance maximum melting meridional Mid Holocene mid latitude near-surface North Atlantic Northern Hemisphere observations occurred period permafrost polar regions poleward precipitation proxy reanalysis recent decades records relatively result retreat salinity satellite scenarios sea ice extent season Section sediment cores shelf simulate snow cover solar radiation Southern Ocean stations studies suggested summer surface temperature timescales trends warmer warming water masses Weddell Sea wind winter Younger Dryas