Clinical Epidemiology: The Study of the Outcome of Illness
Examining the principles and methods of research on the evaluation of factors affecting the outcome of illness, this book emphasizes diagnostic and therapeutic interventions--the factors most readily modified by health care providers. The author discusses various ways of structuring observations on patient groups, and appraises the nature and strength of inferences drawn from those observations. He also demonstrates how the results of this type of research--clinical epidemiologic research--can be incorporated into the decision-making process utilized in clinical medicine.
This book contains a concise account of topics such as the assessment of the use of diagnostics and screening tests and their role in improving the outcome of illness, the evaluation of therapeutic efficacy through experimental and nonexperimental studies, and a particularly useful chapter on assessment of therapeutic safety. It is an essential reference and guide to the quantitative assessment of the consequences of illness for clinicians in training or in practice.The new edition of Clinical Epidemiology greatly expands the chapter on randomized control trials, and includes a whole new chapter on meta-analysis, authored by Peter Cummings. Meta-analysis, the statistical synthesis of data from comparable studies, was unheard of 30 years ago, but with the advent of increased computer technology, the method has been steadily growing in importance in the epidemiology community.
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What It is and How It Is Used
Outcome of Illness
Peter Cummings and Noel S Weiss
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acute administered adverse effects analysis aneurysm aspirin assessment assigned to receive association benefit beta blockers bias blood pressure breast cancer case-control study chest pain cholesterol cimetidine Clinical Epidemiology clinical trials colorectal cancer compared comparison condition confidence interval criteria death detection diagnosed difference disease efficacy endometrial cancer endpoint Epidemiol estimate estrogen evaluate evidence example factors fecal occult blood follow-up frequency given Greenland hormone hypertensive identified illness incidence influence intervention investigators JAMA Lancet lidocaine measure meta-analysis methods monitoring mortality rate myocardial infarction natural history negative NEngl nonrandomized studies observed occurrence odds ratio oral contraceptives outcome ovarian cancer patients with chest period persons placebo population positive possible potential predictive value pregnancy presence prior prostate cancer randomized controlled trial randomized trial reduced relative renal risk ratio serum specificity statistical survival symptoms systematic review therapeutic therapy tion transplant treated treatment groups tumor vaccine valid Weiss NS women