Clinical MR Imaging and Physics: A Tutorial

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Springer Science & Business Media, Nov 1, 2008 - Medical - 176 pages
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Keywords Spin › Electromagnetic radiation › Resonance › Nucleus › Hydrogen › Proton › Certain atomic nuclei possess inherent magnetic Let us summarize the MRI procedure. Te patient properties called spin, and can interact with electro- is placed in a magnetic feld and becomes temporarily 1 magnetic (EM) radiation through a process called magnetized. Resonance is achieved through the - resonance. When such nuclei absorb EM energy they plication of specifc pulses of EM radiation, which is proceed to an excited, unstable confguration. Upon absorbed by the patient. Subsequently, the excess - return to equilibrium, the excess energy is released, ergy is liberated and measured. Te captured signal producing the MR signal. Tese processes are not is processed by a computer and converted to a gray random, but obey predefned rules. scale (MR) image. Te simplest nucleus is that of hydrogen (H), con- Why do we need to place the patient in a m- sisting of only one particle, a proton. Because of its net? Because the earth’s magnetic feld is too weak to abundance in humans and its strong MR signal, H be clinically useful; it varies from 0. 3–0. 7 Gauss (G). is the most useful nucleus for clinical MRI. Tus, foC r urrent clinical MR systems operate at low, mid or our purposes, MRI refers to MRI of hydrogen, and for h igh feld strength ranging from 0. 1 to 3.
 

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Contents

Resonance
1
Electromagnetic Fields
2
Macroscopic Magnetization
3
Macroscopic Magnetization Revisited
5
Excitation Phenomena
7
T1 Relaxation Longitudinal or SpinLattice Relaxation
9
T2 Relaxation Transverse or SpinSpin Relaxation
11
Magnetic Substrates of T1 Relaxation
13
Fast or Turbo Spin Echo Imaging
40
Selective Fat Suppression
43
Chemical Shift Imaging
52
Magnetization Transfer Contrast
56
Diffusion
62
Artifacts
70
Noise
81
Imaging Time
82

Magnetic Substrates of T2 Relaxation
16
Proton Spin Density Contrast
17
Partial Saturation
18
Free Induction Decay
19
Spin Echo
20
Integration of T1 T2 and Proton Density Phenomena
22
Inversion Recovery
25
Image Formation Fourier Transform Gradients
28
Gradient Echo Imaging
32
Pulse Sequences
39
Resolution
83
Contrast Agents
85
Blood Flow
90
MR Angiography
94
Basics of MR Examinations and Interpretation
109
Conclusion
164
References
165
Glossary
166
Subject Index
171
Copyright

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