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Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics: A Primer for Clinical Investigators ...
Michael S. Kramer
No preview available - 2011
analytic bias assessment biased calculated case-control studies cause chance Chapter clinical trials clinicians cohort studies compared confidence interval confounding bias consider correlation creatinine cross-sectional studies death rates detection developing the outcome diagnostic tests dichotomous difference discussed disease drug effect epidemiologic research design epidemiologic studies estimate example expo exposed exposure and outcome exposure groups exposure-outcome association factors follow-up frequency hemoglobin important incidence individual information bias investigator lung cancer mean measurement medical therapy method morbidity no morbidity mortality nonexposed nonsmokers null hypothesis number of subjects observed obtained occur odds ratio overall patients positive predictive value predictive value prevalence probability proportion random sample regression reject H0 relationship relative risk renal cancer representative research hypothesis sample distortion bias sample selection sensitivity serum source population specificity standard deviation statistical inference statistical significance study sample study subjects surgery Table target population tion total number treatment usually utility validity variables z-test