Closed-Loop Control of Blood Glucose

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Springer Science & Business Media, Oct 1, 2007 - Technology & Engineering - 157 pages
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Diabetes is a disease that is now regarded an epidemic in the world and a sign- icant e?ort is directed towards ?nding better ways to manage diabetes. Keeping bloodglucoselevelsasclosetonormalaspossible,leadstoasubstantialdecrease in long term complications of diabetes and can bring signi?cant cost reductions associated with the disease. Traditionally, managing diabetes has been through intermittent monitoring of blood glucose and then administering an appropriate dose of insulin into the blood stream. This method of intermittent monitoring and administration of insulin cannot ensure blood glucose remains at near n- mal levels at all times and therefore, there is considerable interest in managing diabetes on a continuous basis. The development of arti?cial organs/apparatus that regulate human’s blood glucose level has been in progress since 1960. The aim was to measure blood glucose level ex vivo and then injecting an appropriate amount of insulin to the hyperglycaemic patient, thereby correcting the high glucose level. This aim of closing the “loop” is still being challenged by technological barriers even today, and progress are being made constantly both in overcoming the challenges and understanding more about the workings of glucose-regulatory system. The purpose of this book is to introduce the ?eld of closed-loop blood g- cose control, in a simple manner, to the reader. This includes the hardware and software components that make up the control system (see Chapter 2). The hardware components involved the di?erent types of glucose sensor (- vasive, minimally-invasive and non-invasive) and the di?erent types of insulin.
 

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Contents

Introduction
1
122 Historical Background
2
13 Importance of Tighter BG Level Control
3
14 Achieving Tighter Control
4
Glucose Control Input and Output
5
22 BG Measurement Invasive Techniques
6
23 BG Measurement MinimallyInvasive Techniques
7
232 Fluid Extraction
12
431 Theoretical
68
44 Mathematical Models of Glucoregulatory System
69
444 Minimal Model
73
445 Cobellis Model
75
446 Candas and Radziuk
78
447 Hovorkas Model
79
448 Sorensens Model
82
449 Submodels That Complements the Comprehensive Models
86

24 BG Measurement Noninvasive Techniques
15
242 MidIR Emission Spectrometry
21
244 Tissue Manipulation and RedNearIR Absorptiometry λ 6301300nm
24
245 Raman Spectroscopy
26
246 Polarimetry
28
247 Photoacoustic
32
248 Light Diffraction
34
249 Dielectric Spectroscopy
35
25 Amperometric Sensor Calibration
36
252 Regression Calibration
37
253 GlucoWatch Calibration
38
254 Differences Between the MiniMeds CGMStm and Cygnus GlucoWatch Biographer
41
27 Insulin Infusion
43
28 Conclusion
47
29 Summary
48
Glucose Control Patient Dynamics
49
33 Diabetic Patients
51
34 Importance of BG Control
52
341 New Findings
53
351 Loss of the Inhibitory Effects of Elevated Glucose Levels
54
353 Increased Insulin Resistance
55
357 Stress in Liver
56
362 Insulin Infusion Adjustment
57
Mathematics of Glucose Control
59
42 ModelLess Empirical Control Algorithms
60
422 Control Algorithm Based on Lookup Table
61
423 Control Algorithm Based on RuleBased Control
62
424 Control Algorithm Based on PID Control
64
43 ModelBased Control Algorithms
67
45 Mathematics of the ModelBased Control Algorithms
87
452 Optimal Control
88
453 Adaptive Control
91
454 Model Predictive Control
94
455 H Control
97
456 Note
106
47 Summary
107
ClosedLoop Control Apparatus Example
109
512 Software Integration
110
513 Clinical Trial Example
113
52 Miniaturisation Glucose Sensing Circuit
117
522 Constant Potential Application Circuit
118
523 Nanoampere Measuring Circuit
119
53 Miniaturisation Syringe Pump and Microprocessor
120
532 Motor Rotation Detector Circuit
121
55 Circuit Performance
122
56 Basic Safety Issues
124
57 Conclusion
126
Conclusions
127
Mathematical Derivation
129
A2 Linearisation of Nonlinear Model
130
Model Parameters
132
B2 Minimal Model
134
B4 Hovorkas Model
135
B5 Sorensens Model
136
References
139
Index
154
Copyright

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