Closing Chapters: Urban Change, Religious Reform, and the Decline of Youngstown's Catholic Elementary Schools, 1960-2006
Closing Chapters attempts to explain the disintegration of urban parochial schools in Youngstown, Ohio, a onetime industrial center that lost all but one of its eighteen Catholic parochial elementary schools between 1960 and 2006. Through the examination of Youngstown, Welsh sheds light on a significant national phenomenon: the fragmentation of American Catholic identity.
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African American American Catholics black Catholics Boardman Township Brier Hill Catholic Church Catholic community Catholic education Catholic identity Catholic schools Catholicism center-city charter schools city’s close closure Columba’s community’s Conception Elementary School Council decades decline demographic change diocesan school Diocese of Youngstown diocese’s Dolan east side Edward’s enrollment ethnic Father History Hogan-Cullinan Family Collection Ibid Immaculate Conception Immaculate Conception Elementary Immaculate Conception’s immigrants institutions interview Irish American Italian American John Klan large numbers leaders liturgical Mahoning County Mahoning Valley Historical McGreevy national parish Noga non-Catholic north side noted observed Ohio Parish Boundaries parishioners pastor Patrick’s percent Pope population priest Protestant public schools racial religious residents Sacred Heart Second Vatican Council Sister Charlotte social south side steel suburban teachers tion traditional trends U.S. Catholic urban Catholic urban parish schools urban parochial schools Valley Historical Society Vatican Vatican II Vindicator reported white Catholics Youngstown Vindicator