## Clusters and Small Particles: In Gases and PlasmasSmall particles in gaseous systems are called clusters, aerosols, dust particles, Aitken particles, etc., depending on their size, the media where they are observed, and the field of science in which they are studied. Below we call clusters systems of bound atoms or molecules containing from several atoms (molecules) up to thousands, so that their structure can be essential for determining their properties. If clusters are like bulk systems, we call them small particles. The principal pecu liarity of clusters is with respect to magic numbers of cluster atoms that correspond to a heightened cluster stability. Magic numbers correspond to complete structures of clusters as systems of bound atoms or molecules. The values of magic nwnbers depend on the character of interaction of the cluster's atoms. Cluster parameters as a function of the number of cluster atoms n have extrema at the magic nwnbers of atoms. For example, a cluster with a magic nwnber of atoms has a higher binding energy and ionization potential than clusters with neighboring nwnbers of atoms. The difference between clusters and small particles is such that parameters of small particles are monotonic functions of the nwnber of their atoms, while for clusters these parameters have local extrema at magic nwnbers of atoms. |

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### Contents

Introduction | xv |

Behavior of Small Particles in Gases and Plasmas | 1 |

Interaction of Small Particles with Electric and Electromagnetic Fields | 37 |

Bulk Systems of Bound Atoms with Pair Interaction | 79 |

Clusters with Pair Interaction of Atoms | 102 |

Processes and Kinetics of Cluster Growth and Decay | 144 |

Clusters at Nonzero Temperature | 184 |

Plasma with Small Particles or Clusters | 222 |

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### Common terms and phrases

absorption cross section according to formula assume average binding energy bound atoms buffer gas bulk particle bulk system charged particles cluster atoms cluster consisting cluster growth cluster surface cluster temperature clusters and small collision combustion corresponds cuboctahedral cylindrical particle Determine diffusion coefficient dipole distance between nearest distribution function electric field strength equal equilibrium Esur fcc-clusters fcc-structure flux fractal fractal aggregate given hexagonal icosahedral cluster icosahedron interaction of atoms ionization ionization potential large clusters layer Lennard-Jones liquid drop model located magic numbers mean free path metallic clusters metallic particle nearest neighbors negative ions number density number of atoms number of cluster obtain optimal pair interaction parameters particle radius particle's surface partition function plane positive ions potential of atoms previous Problem radiation rate constant result short-range interaction small particles solid specific surface energy statistical weight surface atoms system of bound Table total number transition truncated octahedron velocity