Cockpit Resource Management

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Earl L. Wiener, Barbara G. Kanki, Robert L. Helmreich
Gulf Professional Publishing, 1993 - Psychology - 519 pages
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Cockpit Resource Management (CRM) has gained increased attention from the airline industry in recent years due to the growing number of accidents and near misses in airline traffic. This book, authored by the first generation of CRM experts, is the first comprehensive work on CRM. Cockpit Resource Management is a far-reaching discussion of crew coordination, communication, and resources from both within and without the cockpit. A valuable resource for commercialand military airline training curriculum, the book is also a valuable reference for business professionals who are interested in effective communication among interactive personnel.

Key Features
* Discusses international and cultural aspects of CRM
* Examines the design and implementation of Line-Oriented Flight Training (LOFT)
* Explains CRM, LOFT, and cockpit automation
* Provides a case history of CRM training which improved flight safety for a major airline

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Chapter 1 Why CRM? Empirical and Theoretical Bases of Human Factors Training
11 The Evolution and Growth of CRM
14 Group Processes and Performance in the Aviation Environment
142 Input Factors
Group factors
743 Summary
75 Concluding Remarks
Chapter 8 Line Oriented Flight Training LOFT The Intersection of Technical and Human Factor Crew Resource Management CRM Team Skills
86 The Change of LOFT to LOS and Line Operational Evaluations LOE
862 National Transportation Safety Board NTSB
87 The Creation of the Line Operational Evaluation LOE
88 AQP Program Method

Organizational factors
Environmental factors
144 Group Process Factors
145 Elaborating Group Process Factors
Expanded group process factors
Communications processes and decision tasks
Situation awareness workload management tasks
Machine interface tasks
15 Theoretical Leveraging of CRM Training
151 Optimizing Input Factors
Regulatory factors
152 Enhancing Group Process Factors
Figure 15 Behavioral markers for workload distributionsituational awareness
16 The Evolution of CRM Training
17 CRM and Traditional Management Development Training
18 Research Findings
19 Open Issues for Research
110 Conclusions
111 CRM Redux
1113 Expansion of CRM into New Domains
1114 The Future
Chapter 2 Teamwork and Organizational Factors
Chapter 3 Crews as Groups Their Formation and their Leadership
32 Crews Groups and Teams
322 Roles
323 Norms
324 Status
325 Authority
326 Group Dynamics
33 Group Process and Leverage
34 Leadership
A Critical Leverage Point
354 Authority Dynamics Findings
36 Group Shells
37 Implications for Effective Crew Leadership
38 Conclusion
Chapter 4 Communication and Crew Resource Management
41 Historical View of Communication and Flight Safety
413 Early Communication Research
414 The Communication Concept
42 Functions of Communication
43 Issues and Advances in Communication
432 Advances in Communication and Investigation
433 Advances in Communication and CRM Training
434 Advances in Communication and CRM Evaluation
44 Summary
Chapter 5 Flight Crew DecisionMaking
51 Aviation DecisionMaking
511 Theoretical Foundations
512 The Role of Expertise
513 Aviation Decision Process Model
514 Situational Constraints and Affordances in Choosing a Course of Action
IllDefined problems
Creative problemsolving
52 What Factors Make Decisions Difficult?
522 How Can Decision Processes Go Wrong?
523 Plan Continuation Errors PCE
524 Error Inducing Contexts
525 Cognitive Factors
53 Behaviors that Characterize Effective Crew DecisionMaking
54 Can We Train Crews to Make Better Decisions?
542 NDMbased training
543 Communication training
544 Monitoring skills
The Future of Aviation DecisionMaking
Chapter 6 CRM NonTechnical Skills Applications for and Beyond the Flight Deck
Chapter 7 The Design Delivery and Evaluation of Crew Resource Management Training
71 What is Training Evaluation?
72 Why is Evaluation of CRM Training Necessary?
73 How has CRM Training been Evaluated in the Past?
731 CRM Training Evaluation
732 CRM Training Effectiveness
733 Summary
74 How Should CRM Training be Assessed in the Future?
742 Guidelines for CRM Training Evaluation
89 Learning from LOFTLOE
810 Summary
Chapter 9 Line Operations Simulation Development Tools
91 Flight Training
912 Types of LOS
92 Developing LOS Scenarios
921 Objective Identification
922 Scenario Building
923 Scenario Assessment
93 Need for Developmental Tools
94 Conclusion
Chapter 10 Crew Resource Management CRM and Line Operations Safety Audit LOSA
104 Line Operations Safety Audit LOSA
105 Flight Crew Performance and Procedural Drift
106 The Safety Change Process and Safety Management Systems
107 Summary
108 Questions and Answers
Chapter 11 Crew Resource Management Spaceflight Resource Management
Chapter 12 The Migration of Crew Resource Management Training
121 The Maritime Industry
122 CRM in Healthcare
1224 Other Adaptations of CRM in Healthcare
1225 The Use of Behavioural Markers in Healthcare
123 The Rail Industry
1233 Current Adaptations of CRM in the Rail Industry
1234 Recent Developments in the Australian Rail Industry
1235 Recent Developments in the UK
124 Offshore Industry
1242 Adaptations of CRM to the Offshore Industry
1243 The Use of Behavioral Markers
125 Future Migration
Chapter 13 A Regulatory Perspective
132 Regulatory Requirements and Guidance for Crew Resource ManagementFlight Deck
1321 Airworthiness Requirements for Equipment DesignExamples
1322 Flight Crew Training Requirements
1323 Flight Crew Procedures
133 Future Considerations
134 Concluding Remarks
Chapter 14 A Regulatory Perspective II
141 Historical Perspective
142 Measuring and Grading CRM
143 The Role of the Regulator
144 Evaluator Calibration
145 LeadershipFollowership
146 Advanced Crew Resource Management
147 Facilitated Debriefing Techniques
148 The Generations of the CRM Advisory Circular
Chapter 15 Integrating CRM into an Airlines Culture The Air Canada Process
The CRM Policy of Air Canada Toward Captaincy
1518 Conclusion
Chapter 16 The Accident Investigators Perspective
Introduction and Background Information
161 Individual Accountability within the Context of Team Performance
162 Organizational Accountability and Indoctrination
163 Summary
Chapter 17 The Airlines Perspective Effectively Applying Crew Resource Management Principles in Todays Aviation Environment
Chapter 18 Conversations on CRM from Outside the USA
182 The Successes of CRM
183 CRM Influence on Check Training and Simulation
184 Extending CRM Training
185 Introduction of Threat and Error Management TEM
186 The Future of CRM Outside the USA
Chapter 19 The Military Perspective
192 Current Military Approaches to CRM Training
193 The Effectiveness of Military CRM Training
194 The Future of CRM Training in the Military
195 Conclusion
Chapter 20 Airline Pilot Training Today and Tomorrow
Chapter 21 The Future of CRM

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About the author (1993)

Earl L. Wiener is a professor of management science and industrial engineering at the University of Miami. He received his B.A. in psychology from Duke University and his Ph.D. in psychology and industrial engineering from Ohio State University. He served as a pilot in the U.S. Air Force and U.S. Army and is rated in fixed-wing and rotary-wing aircraft. He has conducted research in the areas of human vigilance, automobile and aviation safety, and accidents occurring to the elderly. Since 1979 he has been active in the aeronautics and cockpit automation research of NASA's Ames Research Center. Dr. Wiener is a fellow of the Human Factors Society and the American Psychological Association.

Barbara G. Kanki is currently a staff research psychologist in the Aerospace Human Factors Research Division of NASA-Ames Research Center and a principal investigator in the Crew Factors research group. Dr. Kanki received her graduate degree from the Behavioral Sciences Department at the University of Chicago, where she specialized in the areas of communication and group dynamics. She came to Ames Research Center in 1985 as a National Research Council post-doctoral associate and began work in the aeronautical doman by studying the relationship between crew communication and aircrew performance, using both full-mission simulation and field research methods. Although much of the Crew Factors research focuses on the study of aircrew team performance and training in air transport operations, the work generalizes to other domains in the aviation system, such as aircraft maintenance, as well as to ground-based space operations. As such, the program has grown to include payload and orbiter processing teams for NASA shuttle missions and other teams, such as aquanauts and mountaineering teams, whose work environments are analogous to space operations in critical respects.

Robert L. Helmreich is professor of psychology at the University of Texas at Austin. He received his Ph.D. in personality and social psychology from Yale University in 1966. He has conducted research on group processes and performance sponsored by NASA, the Office of Naval Research, and the FAA, as well as research on personality and motivation sponsored by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute of Mental Health. He is a fellow of the American Psychological Association and the American Psychological Society and former editor of the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. He was chair of an FAA working group to develop the National Plan for Aviation Human Factors. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences Committee on Space Biology and Medicine and Committee on Human Factors. He is Director of the NASA/University of Texas/FAA Aerospace Crew Performance Project investigating issues in crew selection, training, and performance evaluation in both aviation and space environments.

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