Cognitive Learning Theory and Cane Travel Instruction: A New Paradigm
DIANE Publishing, 1998 - 170 pages
Cane travel instruction is critical among rehabilitation services offered to those with vision loss. This book addresses the rationale for an alternative, agency-based, rehabilitation program. Section One presents the case for a cognitive learning approach, addressing normal science & mobility instruction, perceptual awareness, cognitive problem solving, motor skill, intrinsic feedback, & managing the environment among other topics. Section Two presents an instructional outline. Appendices include the case for sleepshade training, & elements of an instructor training program.
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acquired activities assumptions Bandura Bjork blind persons cane tip cane travel instruction chapter cognitive paradigm curb depth perception discovery learning Eleanor Gibson electromagnetic spectrum environmental modifications explain explored extrinsic feedback fourth floor functional Gibson guided learning guided teaching hallway identified Impairment & Blindness increase instructor trainees involves Ittelson Journal of Visual knowledge learner light limited vision low vision training Managing the Environment metacognition monitoring Motor Learning motor skills nonvisual techniques normal science objects open skills Orientation and Mobility parking lot pattern recognition perceived perceptual awareness perceptual experience perceptual learning performance peripheral vision Phase practice problem solving profession of O&M rehabilitation remaining vision response role Schmidt selective attention self-efficacy sidewalk Singer skills of cane sleepshade training strategies street crossings structured discovery tasks teaching cane travel travel assignments travel route travel student travel training understanding vision loss Visual Impairment walking Wiener
Page 9 - Normal science, the activity in which most scientists inevitably spend almost all their time, is predicated on the assumption that the scientific community knows what the world is like.
Page 10 - The decision to reject one paradigm is always simultaneously the decision to accept another, and the judgment leading to that decision involves the comparison of both paradigms with nature and with each other.'14 From this second point of view, the confrontation did not give much ground for comfort.
Page 35 - When we perceive, we externalize certain aspects of our experience and thereby create for ourselves our own world of things and people, of sights and sounds, of tastes and touches.
Page 41 - I construed perception (as used by Bacon) as meaning taking account of the essential character of the thing perceived, and I construed sense as meaning cognition. We certainly do take account of things of which at the time we have no explicit cognition. We can even have a cognitive memory of the taking account, without having had a contemporaneous cognition. Also, as Bacon points out by his statement, '. . . for else all bodies would be alike one to another...
Page 74 - In my view, the cognitive structures crucial for vision are the anticipatory schemata that prepare the perceiver to accept certain kinds of information rather than others and thus control the activity of looking. Because we can see only what we know how to look for, it is these schemata (together with the information actually available) that determine what will be perceived.
Page 10 - Kuhn wrote: [O]nce it has achieved the status of paradigm, a scientific theory is declared invalid only if an alternate candidate is available to take its place.
Page 10 - But it does mean . . . that the act of judgment that leads scientists to reject a previously accepted theory is always based on more than a comparison of that theory with the world. The decision to reject one paradigm is always simultaneously the decision to accept another, and the judgment leading to that decision involves the comparison of both paradigms with nature and with each other.
Page 103 - Fig. 8(e)). 4.4.2 Head Room. Walks, halls, corridors, passageways, aisles, or other circulation spaces shall have 80 in (2030 mm) minimum clear head room (see Fig. 8(a)).
Page 101 - ... be made identifiable to the touch by a textured surface on the door handle, knob, pull, or other operating hardware. This textured surface may be made by knurling or roughing or by a material applied to the contact surface Such textured...
Page 101 - If a walk crosses or adjoins a vehicular way, and the walking surfaces are not separated by curbs, railings, or other elements between the pedestrian areas and vehicular areas, the boundary between the areas shall be defined by a continuous detectable warning which is 36 in (915 mm) wide, complying with 4.29.2. 4.29.6 Detectable Warnings at Reflecting Pools. The edges of reflecting pools shall be protected by railings, walls, curbs, or detectable warnings complying with 4.29.2.