Cognitive Flexibility Theory: Advanced Knowledge Acquisition in Ill-structured Domains
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Center for the Study of Reading, 1988 - Cognitive learning - 12 pages
Advanced knowledge acquisition in a subject area is different in many important ways from introductory learning (and from expertise). This paper discusses some of the special characteristics of advanced learning of complex conceptual material. The authors note how these characteristics are often at odds with the goals and tactics of introductory instruction and with psychological biases in learning. They allude to their research in biomedical cognition that has revealed a substantial incidence of misconception attributable to various forms of over simplication, and outline the factors that contribute to suboptimal learning at the advanced stage. They then sketch a theoretical orientation for more successful advanced knowledge acquisition in ill-structured domains, Cognitive Flexibility Theory. Keywords: Artificial intelligence. (KR).
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ACQUISITION IN ILL-STRUCTURED across-case advanced knowledge acquisition advanced learning analogies Spiro approach to learning biomedical misconceptions biomedical science concepts Cardioworld Explorer Champaign characteristics of ill-structured Cognitive Flexibility Theory cognitive load complex and ill-structured complex and irregular complex concepts computer hypertext systems conceptual complexity conceptual knowledge conceptual structures content material contexts Coulson DOMAINS The Goals example experience facilitates Feltovich fostered goals of advanced ill-structured domain i.e. implementing Cognitive Flexibility Integrated Multiple Analogies interacting introductory learning kind knowledge application situation knowledge domain knowledge representations landscape criss-crossing large number learner medical students mental representation multiple dimensions multiple interconnectedness multiple representations muscle fibers networks of misconception number of possible Overreliance perspectives precompiled knowledge structures preemptive encoding prepackaged schemas problems of advanced reductive bias relevant representations e.g. rowing crew analogy schema assembly Schema Retrieval segments single organizational scheme single schema Spiro & Jehng structured domains subject area target concept variability vector Wittgenstein