Cold Aqueous Planetary Geochemistry with FREZCHEM: From Modeling to the Search for Life at the Limits

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Springer Science & Business Media, Dec 20, 2007 - Science - 251 pages
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Written by two of the best US researchers in the field, this text investigates issues of astrobiological relevance in the context of cold aqueous planetary geochemistry. At the core of the technical chapters is the FREZCHEM model, initially developed over many years by one of the authors to quantify aqueous electrolyte properties and chemical thermodynamics at subzero temperatures. FREZCHEM is of huge relevance to scientists in a number of fields, including biogeochemists.

 

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Contents

Introduction
1
Aqueous Chemistry
3
212 The First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics
4
213 Activities Chemical Potentials and Equilibrium Constants
7
22 Pitzer Approach
10
222 Temperature and Pressure Dependencies
15
The FREZCHEM Model
19
32 Basic Structure
21
Biogeochemical Applications to Solar System Bodies
101
51 Earth
102
512 Aqueous Saline Environments
110
513 Snowball EarthHothouse Earth
113
514 Why Are Clouds not Green?
120
515 Other Earth Applications
123
52 Mars
125
522 Early Mars Oceans
135

322 Mass Balances
22
33 Chemistries and Their Temperature and Pressure Dependence
24
332 Salt Equilibria
29
333 GasSolution Phase Equilibria
37
334 Gas Hydrate Equilibria
42
34 Mathematical Algorithms
49
342 Gibbs Energy Minimization
50
343 Other Mathematical Techniques
52
35 Validation
56
36 Limitations
67
361 PitzerEquation Parameterization Limitations
68
362 Modeling Limitations
75
Limits for Life
78
41 Temperature
84
42 Salinity
86
43 Acidity
88
44 Desiccation
89
46 Pressure
90
47 Time
97
524 Hydrate Deposits and Thermal Stratification
139
53 Europa
141
531 Ocean Compositions
142
532 Ice Compositions
148
54 Application Limitations
150
The Search for and Future of Life in the Universe
154
62 Entropic Death?
158
63 Solar System Life
162
64 To the Stars or Bust?
169
A FREZCHEM Program Guide
175
A2 Model Inputs
176
A3 Model Outputs
177
A32 Strong Acid
178
A34 Pressure Application
179
Parameter Tables
192
References
223
Index
246
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