Collective Reinterpretation in the Psalms: A Study of the Redaction History of the Psalter
Marko Marttila reevaluates the extent and nature of the collective passages in the Psalter. Many of the complaint psalms written by an individual were reread at a later stage from a national point of view. In the altered religious, political and social circumstances, the earlier texts were reworked and reinterpreted so that they would comply more closely with the prevailing conditions. This collectivizing tendency probably began during the exile and continued until the final redaction of the Psalter (about 200-180 BCE). Collective features increased in late exilic and post-exilic theology even outside the Psalter. This can be seen in the national emphases in Lamentations, the nomistic theology of the Deuteronomistic history and the servant songs of Deutero-Isaiah. It even seems likely that the term mashiach (the anointed) has a collective reference in some passages. When the Davidic monarchy no longer existed, it was the people of Israel that became the recipient of the divine promises once given to David and his dynasty. Most of these ancient contributors are unknown to us, but the Hasideans at least may have played an important role in this process in its final stage, since there are some obvious passages where the Hasideans seem to represent the people of Israel exclusively.
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Attempts to Understand the Transitions between the Individual and
The Aim of This Study and Presentation of Methods
Collective Features in Exilic and Early PostExilic Texts
The Origin and Sitz im Leben of Lamentations
The Composition of the Deuteronomistic History
Salvation Oracles in Individual Complaints
Collective Passages in Various Psalms
Collective Features in the Songs of Ascents
The Collective Use of the Term rrtfB in PostExilic Theology
The Fivefold Book Division of the Psalter
Beyond the Redactions of the Psalter
According Aejmelaeus ALBERTZ Alten Testaments analysed Aramaic Balla basic BECKER Ben Sira biblical book of Lamentations book of Psalms century B.C.E. collective features collective interpretation collective redaction colometric commentary common composition conclusion connection context critical cultic DAHMEN David derive Deutero-Isaiah Deuteronomistic History doxology DtrN Elohistic EMMENDORFFER emphases Entstehung exile expression favour Furthermore genre Gott GUNKEL Hasideans HOSSFELD hymn individual complaint psalms instance Israel Israelite JANOWSKI king KRAUS Lamentations later layer LEVIN lexical LINDSTROM literary LORETZ manuscripts Masoretic Masoretic Text mentioned messianic Mowinckel NOMMIK noteworthy occurs Old Testament opinion origin parallel passages Peshitta PIETSCH poem Polysemie post-exilic pre-exilic Priestly Code probably Psalm 22 Psalmen Psalms Scrolls Psalter Qumran redactors refers regards reinterpretation represents scholars Septuagint Servant Songs SEYBOLD Sira Sitz im Leben SMEND SPIECKERMANN superscription term textual thanksgiving theology theory Ugaritic VEIJOLA verb VerheiBung verses word Yahweh ZENGER Zion