Colombia: Essays on Conflict, Peace, and Development
World Bank Publications, 2000 - Social Science - 196 pages
Achieving peace and promoting economic and social development are the two main challenges facing countries like Colombia, affected by a serious internal armed conflict. A variety of studies, including this one, indicate that Colombia's violence and armed conflict stem from a complex interaction of economic, social, historical and political factors. This book concludes that attaining and consolidating peace is essential for Colombia. Without sustained peace, there will not be any economic and social development. Peace, once achieved, must be supported by broad domestic consensus and by economic and public policies that promote economic growth, job creation, and food security, among other issues. Among the books other conclusions, is that peace will require deep institutional reforms, possibly a new social contract.
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activities affected agrarian reform Andres Pastrana areas armed conflict Bosnia and Herzegovina causes of violence civil society Colombian society consensus costs of peace countries country's created creation crime D.C. Processed demobilization democracy democratic displaced persons drug economic and social El Salvador example factors Fe de Bogota financing fiscal FMLN framework Fund Guatemala guerrilla guerrilla groups homicide human rights implementation important increase initiatives institutions international community interventions investment issues judicial justice la violencia land Latin America lence ment military needs nomic Northern Ireland organizations paramilitary participation peace accord peace agreement peace and development peace in Colombia peace negotiations peace process percent political violence post-conflict poverty problems productive programs projects reconstruction reduce regional reintegration role rural Rwanda Santa Fe social capital social violence strategy structural sustainable peace tion urban Violence in Colombia violencia Washington World Bank
Page 32 - Social capital is the rules, norms, obligations, reciprocity, and trust embedded in social relations, social structures, and societies' institutional arrangements, which enable its members to achieve their individual and community objectives.
Page 12 - The commission of violent acts motivated by a desire, conscious or unconscious, for social gain or to obtain or maintain social power. Guerrilla conflict; paramilitary conflict; political assassinations; armed conflict between political parties; rape and sexual abuse as a political act.
Page 12 - Street crime; carjacking; robbery/ theft drug trafficking; kidnapping; assaults, including rape occurring during economic crimes. Interpersonal violence such as spouse and child abuse; sexual assault of women and children; arguments that get out of control. violence, such as street crime and kidnapping, is motivated by economic gain; and political violence, such as guerrilla or paramilitary, is inspired by the will to win or hold political power. The interrelationships in this threefold categorization...
Page 26 - Natural capital includes the stocks of environmentally provided assets such as soil, atmosphere, forests, minerals, water and wetlands. In rural communities, land is a critical productive asset for the poor, while in urban areas land for shelter is also a critical productive asset. Armed conflict and political violence can result in incalculable longterm environmental impacts that vary according to the type of conflict. In Colombia, terrorist attacks on oil installations and aerial spraying of illicit...
Page 32 - ... experience a loss of status as breadwinners and a rupture of their sense of masculine identity. Gang involvement is an example of the negative social cost: young people, bereft of strong family and community support, form mutually reinforcing groups. Violence has eroded social capital5 by reducing trust and cooperation within formal and informal social organizations and among their members. The importance of social capital relates to its recognized contribution to sustainable development and...
Page 40 - Of all perspectives, it focuses most directly on rebuilding social capital among informal and formal institutions such as families, community organizations, and the judiciary. Using bottom-up, participatory processes...
Page 34 - Women are generally better equipped to develop support networks to continue the routines of daily survival and find new ways of earning an income, creating social capital not with other women originating from the same area, but with those sharing the same history of displacement (Meertens and Segura-Escobar 1996; Meertens, pp.
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