Communication and Reference

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Walter de Gruyter, 1984 - Language Arts & Disciplines - 205 pages
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Contents

Introduction
3
Linguistics and the Philosophy of Language
7
The Philosophy of Language and the Philosophy of Communi cation
9
COMMUNICATION
15
General Conventions Governing Conversation The Cooperative Principle and Conversational Maxims
17
The Two Sides of Communication
18
Conversation
19
Maxims of Quantity
22
Metaphor
79
Analysis of a Metaphor
81
Metaphor and Other Figures of Speech
85
Nonstandard Metaphors
86
Generalizing the Theory
89
Reply to Objections to a Pragmatic Theory of Metaphor
90
A Comparison with Searles Theory of Metaphor
92
Applications to Problems in Logic
95

Maxims of Quality
24
Maxims of Relation
26
Maxims of Manner
30
Interim Summary
31
Nonfulfillment of Maxims
32
Violating a Maxim
33
Opting Out of a Maxim
36
Conversational Implicatures
37
Moores Paradox
39
Speech Acts Saying and Doing
43
Performative Verbs
45
Locutionary Illocutionary and Perlocutionary Acts
48
Analyses of Three Illocutionary Acts
52
Categories of Illocutionary Acts
56
The Total Content of What a Speaker Linguistically Communicates
63
What a Speaker Expresses and What He Implies
66
Force
67
What a Speaker Indicates by Contrastive Stress
69
What a Speaker Indicates by Tone
70
What a Speaker Indicates by Tense
71
What a Speaker Indicates by Mood
72
Other Possible Indicative Elements
76
The Content of What a Speaker Expresses at the Mad Hatters Tea Party
77
The Taxonomy
96
Maxims without Fallacies
97
Maxims with Fallacies
98
The Relation of a Standard Taxonomy to the New One
102
Formalism and Informalism
103
Conjunction and a Maxim of Manner
105
Conditionals and a Maxim of Relation
107
Disjunction and a Maxim of Quantity
109
Utterers Meaning and Communication
113
Grices Analysis of Communicative Meaning
115
Strawsons Critique of Grices Analysis
118
Searles Purported Counterexample
122
Four Notions of Meaning
125
Utterance Meaning and Timeless Meaning
127
REFERENCE
131
Reference Existence and Descriptions
133
Is WordMeaning or SentenceMeaning Primary?
134
A Speech Act Theory of Referring
149
The Attributive Use and The Speech Act Theory
169
The Causal and Description Theories of Reference
181
Bibliography
193
Index
203
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