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RESEARCH TECHNIQUES FOR PHONETIC COMPARISON
COMPARING THE PROSODIC FEATURES OF ENGLISH
COMPARING THE VOCALIC FEATURES OF ENGLISH GER
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24 frames acoustic charts affricates American English apical apical consonants artificial speech aspiration back cavity centiseconds changes characteristic closed syllables comparison consonant length diphthongs distinctive English and German factors final position flap formant frequencies formant transitions four languages frames per second French French and German French and Spanish frequency of occurrence fricatives front cavity fundamental frequency German and Spanish glottis harmonics intensity intervocalic intonation length lenis less fronted lip rounding logical stress lower monophthongs motion picture X-rays nasal vowels non-distinctive occur open syllables palate patterns perception pharyngeal phonemes place of articulation place of stress plosive consonants postvocalic prevocalic resonance retroflexed rise second formant sense groups sequences short shows sonants sound Spanish Spanish and French Spanish Figure spectrograms speech synthesizer stressed position third formant three other languages three target languages tion tongue tip unstressed syllables vocal tract voiced voiceless vowel color vowel duration words X-ray motion pictures