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Tunable Diode Lasers
Single Tone Frequency Modulation Spectroscopy
8 other sections not shown
2eAf absorption line amplitude modulation angular frequency as.n attenuation beam beat frequency carrier cell Diode laser continuous tuning regions current is modulated defined demodulate detection frequency detector is oo determined direct absorption Doppler broadening dye lasers electric field et.al etalon experimental apparatus field is scanned FM SPECTROSCOPY TECHNIQUES frequency modulation frequency space frequency spectrum analyzer FWHM gives the condition incident light index of refraction injection current input intensity lock-in amplifier measured method Minicircuits minimum detectable absorption mixer mode hops modulated the laser modulating the injection modulation index ni/j ni/m noise ratio oo E2(t optical spectrum originates from thermal output P-N junction photodiode RAM noise ramping RF Osc rf power Second Harmonic Two-tone sensitivity analysis set of sidebands shot noise shot noise limit shown in fig SNR SENS spectrum in frequency TDL's temperature tuning curve WAVELENGTH MODULATION SPECTROSCOPY yields oo zero background