Comparison of storm response of streams in small, unmined and valley-filled watersheds, 1999-2001, Ballard Fork, West Virginia
Terence Messinger, United States. Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement, Geological Survey (U.S.)
U.S. Dept. of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, 2003 - Nature - 22 pages
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Effects of Surface Mining Using Valley Fills and Mechanisms of Water Flow
1-hour rainfall 24-hour precipitation antecedent moisture average for four Ballard Fork Watershed Branch and Ballard canopy decrease detention storage downstream drained evaporates exceeded peak unit forested watersheds Fork near Mud four rain gages gaging station Graph showing storm greater than 0.75 hour running average hydraulic conductivity inches of rain inches per hour infiltration capacity initial peak intense storms intercepted July 26 June June 21 large-scale surface mining leaf litter mined areas mined watershed mountaintop-removal November 26 peak flows peak unit discharge peak unit flow peak unit runoff percent rainfall intensity receded Response of Streams runoff and recession Sally Fork Mountaintop sediment ponds soils southern West Virginia spoil Spring Branch Watershed square mile standard deviations Storm Response streamflow study period surface runoff three stream-gaging stations three streams throughfall topographic perimeter total unit flow trees and leaf Tributary to Ballard U.S. Geological Survey unmined watershed Unnamed Tributary Watershed valley fills