Complex Mixtures: Methods for In Vivo Toxicity Testing
National Academies, Jan 1, 1988 - Science - 227 pages
In the laboratory, testing the toxic effects for a single compound is a straightforward process. However, many common harmful substances occur naturally as mixtures and can interact to exhibit greater toxic effects as a mixture than the individual components exhibit separately. Complex Mixtures addresses the problem of identifying and classifying complex mixtures, investigating the effect of exposure, and the research problems inherent in testing their toxicity to human beings. A complete series of case studies is presented, including one that examines the cofactors of alcohol consumption and cigarette smoke.
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activity additive airways analysis analytic animals approach aromatic hydrocarbons asbestos asbestos exposure assay assessment Available from NTIS bioassay bioavailability biologic blood Pb blood pressure C1 and C2 carcinogenesis carcinogenic cells chemical chlorination chromatography chronic cigarette smoke cigarette-smoking coal coal tar combination combustion complex mixtures components compounds concentrations constituents developed disease dose-response models dose-response relationship drinking water dust effective dose emphysema end points Environ Environmental Equation estimates evaluation example excess risk experimental design experiments exposed extraction extrapolation factors fractions health effects human exposure IARC identify increase inhalation interaction laboratory linear low doses low-dose lung cancer materials methods miners mortality multistage model mutagenic Mutat nonsmoking organic particles pharmacokinetic Pharmacol pollutants polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons population potential predict rats relative risks Research response risk associated Ryzin sampling solvents specific statistical substances testing strategy tion tobacco smoke toxicity toxicity testing Toxicol toxicologic tumor U.S. EPA variables workers