Composite Materials for Aircraft Structures

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AIAA, 2004 - Airplanes - 599 pages
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Contents

Introduction and Overview
1
12 Drivers for Improved Airframe Materials
3
14 Fiber Reinforcements
6
15 Matrices
7
16 Polymer Matrix Composites
13
18 Hybrid MetalPMC Composites
19
References
21
Basic Principles of Fiber Composite Materials
23
92 Comparison Between Mechanically Fastened and Adhesively Bonded Joints
290
93 Adhesively Bonded Joints
292
94 Mechanically Fastened Joints
337
References
366
Repair Technology
369
103 Classification of Types of Structure
371
105 Nonpatch Repairs
374
General Considerations
377

23 Micromechanics
25
24 Elastic Constants
26
25 Micromechanics Approach to Strength
36
26 Simple Estimate of Compressive Strength
42
27 OffAxis Strength in Tension
45
28 Fracture Toughness of Unidirectional Composites
47
References
53
Fibers for PolymerMatrix Composites
55
32 Glass Fibers
57
33 Carbon Fibers
63
34 Boron Fibers
67
35 Silicon Carbide
69
36 Aramid Fibers
71
37 Orientated Polyethylene Fibers
73
38 Dry Fiber Forms
74
References
79
Polymeric Matrix Materials
81
42 Thermoset and Thermoplastic Polymer Matrix Materials
86
43 Thermosetting Resin Systems
88
44 Thermoplastic Systems
108
References
112
Component Form and Manufacture
113
52 Outline of General Laminating Procedures
115
53 Laminating Procedures For AircraftGrade Composite Components
117
54 Liquid Resin Molding Techniques
132
55 Filament Winding
140
56 Pultrusion
145
57 Process Modelling
149
58 Tooling
158
59 Special Thermoplastic Techniques
162
References
169
Structural Analysis
171
62 Laminate Theory
172
63 Stress Concentration and Edge Effects
191
64 Failure Theories
194
65 Fracture Mechanics
203
66 Failure Prediction Near Stress Raisers and Damage Tolerance
204
67 Buckling
207
68 Summary
209
Mechanical Property Measurement
213
72 Coupon Tests
216
73 Laboratory Simulation of Environmental Effects
225
74 Measurement of Residual Strength
227
75 Measurement of Interlaminar Fracture Energy
231
References
237
Properties of Composite Systems
239
82 GlassFiber Composite Systems
241
83 Boron Fiber Composite Systems
247
84 Aramid Fiber Composite Systems
249
85 Carbon Fiber Systems
257
86 Properties of Laminates
262
87 Impact Damage Resistance
263
88 Fatigue of Composite Laminates
266
89 Environmental Effects
276
References
286
Joining of Composite Structures
289
107 Bonded Patch Repairs
379
108 Materials Engineering Aspects
390
In Situ Repairs
394
1010 Bolted Repairs
395
1011 Materials Engineering Aspects
398
References
401
Quality Assurance
403
113 Cure Monitoring
408
114 Nondestructive Inspection of Advanced Composite Aerospace Structures
414
115 Conclusion
430
References
431
Aircraft Applications and Design Issues
435
123 Current Applications
436
124 Design Considerations
447
125 Design of CarbonFiberBased Components
449
126 Design Methodologies
462
127 A Value Engineering Approach to the Use of Composite Materials
466
128 Conclusion
474
Airworthiness Considerations For Airframe Structures
477
132 Certification of Airframe Structures
480
133 The Development of Design Allowables
482
134 Demonstration of Static Strength
484
135 Demonstration of Fatigue Strength
486
136 Demonstration of Damage Tolerance
487
References
488
ThreeDimensionally Reinforced Preforms and Composites
491
142 Stitching
492
143 ZPinning
498
144 ThreeDimensional Weaving
502
145 Braiding
507
146 Knitting
515
147 Noncrimp Fabrics
519
148 Conclusion
523
Smart Structures
525
152 Engineering Approaches
526
153 Selected Applications and Demonstrators
531
154 Key Technology Needs
544
References
545
KnowledgeBased Engineering ComputerAided Design and Finite Element Analysis
549
162 Finite Element Modelling of Composite Structures
552
163 Finite Element Solution Process
553
164 Element Types
562
165 Finite Element Modelling of Composite Structures
563
166 Implementation
566
167 Design Optimization
568
References
569
Overview of Some Sensors and Actuators Used for Smart Structure Applications
571
A2 Shape Memory Alloys
573
A3 Optical Fiber Sensors
574
A4 Electrorheological Fluids
577
A7 Comparison of Actuators
578
References
579
Index
581
Supporting Materials
599
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